Dhahran al-Janoub Agreements on the Cessation of Hostilities in Yemen for Shabwah, al-Dhali’, al-Baydah, al-Jawf, Ma’rib, Ta’iz and Terms and Conditions

Country/entity
Yemen
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Dhahran al-Janoub Agreements on the Cessation of Hostilities in Yemen for Shabwah, al-Dhali’, al-Baydah, al-Jawf, Ma’rib, Ta’iz and Terms and Conditions
Date
10/04/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Yemeni Civil Wars (1994) (2011 - )
The Republic of Yemen was formed in May 1990 after the merger between the Yemeni Arab Republic (YAR) in the north and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY) in the south. The unification process was rushed and the final agreement between President Ali Abdullah Salih and President Ali Salem al-Beidh was based on the imperfect promise of equality. Following the merger, integration of the militaries and civil services was at best incomplete or at times entirely non-existent. When Salih’s General Congress Party (GPC) allied itself with the newly created Islamist Islah (‘reform’) party in 1993, the former ruling party of South Yemen – the Yemen Socialist Party (YSP) – was effectively side-lined in the 1993 General Elections. Violence involving the use of heavy weaponry and aerial bombardment erupted in April 1994 and on the 21 May 1994 Vice President al-Beidh declared the secession of the south, citing political centralization with the northern highland tribes, violence against the YSP and economic discrimination. In the midst of fighting, negotiations in Cairo, Egypt, collapsed. The war ended with the military victory of the north, and on the 1 October 1994, Ali Abdullah Saleh was elected President.

Despite the unification of Yemen in 1990, political power during the 1990s and 2000s remained centralized with the northern highland tribes, particularly the villages from which President Ali Abdullah Saleh and his confidants stemmed. The system of clientelism established through the ruling General People’s Congress party maintained relative loyalty among the fractured political allegiances of Yemen’s traditional tribal leadership. However, diminishing oil reserves and the shrinking opportunities for access to rent increased economic and political marginalization in Yemen’s peripheral communities.

The degree of regionalism of conflicts is further defined by other local grievances. In the northern governorate of Sa’dah, a backlash was provoked among the local Zaydi Shi’a against Sunni Salafist cultural incursions resulting in six wars between 2004 and 2010. In the southern governorates of Hadramawt, Shabwa, al-Dhali and Abyan, civil and military personnel forcibly retired after the 1994 Civil War began protesting and eventually formed the secessionist Southern ‘al-Hiraak’ movement in 2007. Furthermore, tribal grievances have spurred attacks on oil companies and government installations to extract rents. Various takfiri groups including al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula have also increased their presence since 1995.

The Yemen Spring in early 2011 allowed all these movements to express their joint displeasure. Moreover, factionalism in the regime split the already weak military and thus allowed the Houthis, the takfiris and tribal-based militia known as popular committees, to assert themselves militarily. Mandated by the UN-sponsored Gulf Cooperation Council Initiative, the National Dialogue held from September 2013 to January 2014 aimed at guaranteeing power-sharing among the different parties. However, the GCC Initiative only included formal political parties that did not accurately reflect political realities. Furthermore, provisions lacked adequate transitional justice and provided former-President Saleh, as well as others, full amnesty. As a result, little faith was placed in the process by formerly-marginalized groups such as the Houthi and al-Hiraak who opted to increase their bargaining power vis-à-vis the state by strengthening their own territorial enclaves.
Yemeni Civil Wars (1994) (2011 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Related)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
138: Yemen peace process
Parties
General People's Congress, Ansar Allah, Arab Coalition and Internationally recognised Government of Yemen [Hadi]
Third parties
United Nations
Certified by the Representative of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Description
A ceasefire agreement between Ansar Allah and the General People's Congress, and the UN-backed government of President Abdrabbu Mansur Hadi, providing for the creation of a Committee for De-escalation and Coordination to contain members from all sides, as well as local level committees of eight men/women to implement the ceasefire as well as regular ceasefire provisions such as a cessation of attacks, withdrawal of forces and free access for humanitarian organisations.
The Dharan al-Janoub Ceasefires number six covering the governorates of Jawf, Marib, Taiz, al-Baydah, Shabwah and al-Dhalea. The agreements are identical save for the signatories and names of individuals partaking in local committees, therefore only one copy [Jawf] has been coded in database.

Agreement document
YE_160410_Terms of the cessation of hostilities and Dharan al-Janoub Ceasefires.pdf

Main category
Page 2-3, Procedural measures,
... 5. Free and unimpeded access to humanitarian and relief agencies and supplies to and from all parts of Yemen, as well as unrestricted freedom of movement for individuals, citizens and commercial supplies, and commercial and economic activities not inconsistent with the United Nations Verification and Inspection Mechanism (UNVIM). The Government is committed to protecting civilians in accordance with the provisions and norms of international humanitarian law, including respect for the rights of women and children in armed conflict, and to protect civilian infrastructure and private and public property.

Page 4, Local committees to stabilize the cessation of hostilities
20. During the cessation of hostilities to enforce it, Local Committees are to actively engage with civil society, including women’s and youth groups, to promote the general commitment to the cessation of hostilities.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 4, Local committees to stabilize the cessation of hostilities
20. During the cessation of hostilities to enforce it, Local Committees are to actively engage with civil society, including women’s and youth groups, to promote the general commitment to the cessation of hostilities.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 2-3, Procedural measures,
... 5. Free and unimpeded access to humanitarian and relief agencies and supplies to and from all parts of Yemen, as well as unrestricted freedom of movement for individuals, citizens and commercial supplies, and commercial and economic activities not inconsistent with the United Nations Verification and Inspection Mechanism (UNVIM). The Government is committed to protecting civilians in accordance with the provisions and norms of international humanitarian law, including respect for the rights of women and children in armed conflict, and to protect civilian infrastructure and private and public property.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Protection (general)
Page 2-3, Procedural measures,
... 5. Free and unimpeded access to humanitarian and relief agencies and supplies to and from all parts of Yemen, as well as unrestricted freedom of movement for individuals, citizens and commercial supplies, and commercial and economic activities not inconsistent with the United Nations Verification and Inspection Mechanism (UNVIM). The Government is committed to protecting civilians in accordance with the provisions and norms of international humanitarian law, including respect for the rights of women and children in armed conflict, and to protect civilian infrastructure and private and public property.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh