Agreement Between the Federal Government of Somalia and the Government of Puntland State of Somalia

Country/entity
Somalia
Puntland
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement Between the Federal Government of Somalia and the Government of Puntland State of Somalia
Date
03/04/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
111: Somalia-Puntland Peace Process
Parties
Federal Government of Somalia led by His Excellency Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the Prime Minister of the Federal Government of Somalia
Third parties
The Foreign Minister of Ethiopia and the Chairman of the IGAD Council of Ministers H.E. Tedros Adhanom, SRSG Michael Keating of the United Nations, African Union SRCC Francisco Madeira, EU Special Envoy Michele Cervone, Executive Secretary of IGAD, Ambassador Mahboub Moallim, IGAD Special Envoy Ambassador Mohamed Affey, with Ambassadors from Ethiopia, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Sweden, Italy, and Djibouti also attended.
Description

Agreement document
SO_160403_Agreement Between the Federal Government of Somalia and the Government of Puntland State of Somalia.pdf

Main category
Page 1, 2016 Electoral Process
... The electoral college shall be selected by the traditional elders, who will then forward electoral college member’s names to the Electoral Committees. The electoral college shall reflect members of the community including women.

Page 2, 2016 Electoral Process
... Each seat for the lower house shall be contested by a number of candidates, as shall be agreed by the National Leadership Forum and shall include female candidates from the specific clan grouping. Further each candidate’s filing shall comply with requirements and vetting process of the Electoral Committees at the National and State levels.

Page 2, Upper House
...Each seat in the Upper House of the Federal Parliament shall be contested by an agreed number of candidates including females.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 1, 2016 Electoral Process
... The electoral college shall be selected by the traditional elders, who will then forward electoral college member’s names to the Electoral Committees. The electoral college shall reflect members of the community including women.

Page 2, 2016 Electoral Process
... Each seat for the lower house shall be contested by a number of candidates, as shall be agreed by the National Leadership Forum and shall include female candidates from the specific clan grouping. Further each candidate’s filing shall comply with requirements and vetting process of the Electoral Committees at the National and State levels.

Page 2, Upper House
...Each seat in the Upper House of the Federal Parliament shall be contested by an agreed number of candidates including females.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh