Communique: Dinka Malual & Rezeigat Grassroots Peace Conference

Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Southern Kordofan - Blue Nile - Abyei
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Communique: Dinka Malual & Rezeigat Grassroots Peace Conference
Date
25/01/2010
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
120: Kordofan - Blue Nile - Abyei process
Parties
(1) Malual West, (2) Malual North (3) Malual Centre (4) Abeim and (5) Malual East being the Dinka Malual on one hand and on another hand the Rezeigat communities of (1) El Nawaiba of Western Grazing Route – Elfardous to Aroyo (2) Um Dhahiya of the Eastern Grazing Route – Abujabra, Wanjok and Warawar (3) of Abumatariq of Gok Machar and (4) Mahameed of Althouthah of Asalaya through to Timsah and Raga;


Dinka Malual:
P/Chief Achein Achein Yor of Malual East;
P/Chief Garang Diang Akok of Malual West;
P/Chief Peter Makuec Makuec Kuol of Abeim;
Chief Santino Deng Nyuol of Malual North;
Elder Anyat Dut Diing of Malual Centre;
P/Chief Ayaga Ayaga Ayaga of Ayat West;

Rezeigat:
Ustaz Mohamed Ali el Gourashi;
Ustaz Mohamud Fadhel Nabi Sharif;
El Said Abdallah Abu Basher Mohamad;
Altaib El Nair Abdaallah;
Ibrahim Musa Jad El Karim;
Third parties
Witnessed by H.E. Garang Diing Akuong, Minister of Finance, Industry, Trade and Economic Planning, Northern Bahr Ghazal State.

John Marks, USAID
Description
Agreement between the communities of Rezeigat and the Dinka Malual committing to respect customary law, create a Joint Customary Court between the two communities, enhance cultural and religious tolerance and communication and to broaden inclusion to women and children, among other commitments.

Agreement document
SS_100125_Communiqué, Dinka Malual & Rezeigat Grassroots Peace Conference.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Untitled Preamble,
... - Cognizant of the consequence of instability and destruction of property that has been mutually inflicted upon our own communities during the North-South war between 1983 and 2005 where innocent youth were mobilized by the warring parties to cause self destruction, abduction of children and women, wanton killing, displacement and devastation of property in the area; ...


Page 4, Have committed themselves to:
... 15. To reactivate the role and to include the women, youth and intellectuals of the two communities in the accords of this agreements;

Page 4, Have agreed to commit themselves to:
... 17. To lobby for the establishment of joint boarding schools for girls and other for boys in the areas of the two communities and;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 4, Have committed themselves to:
... 15. To reactivate the role and to include the women, youth and intellectuals of the two communities in the accords of this agreements;
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 2, Untitled Preamble,
... - Cognizant of the consequence of instability and destruction of property that has been mutually inflicted upon our own communities during the North-South war between 1983 and 2005 where innocent youth were mobilized by the warring parties to cause self destruction, abduction of children and women, wanton killing, displacement and devastation of property in the area; ...
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 4, Have agreed to commit themselves to:
... 17. To lobby for the establishment of joint boarding schools for girls and other for boys in the areas of the two communities and;
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh