The Garowe II Principles on Federalism, System of Government and Ending of Transition through operationalizing Garowe I (Garowe II)

Country/entity
Somalia
Puntland
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
The Garowe II Principles on Federalism, System of Government and Ending of Transition through operationalizing Garowe I (Garowe II)
Date
07/02/2012
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
Signatories:
On behalf of the Transitional Federal Government:
H.E. Shiekh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, President of the Transitional Federal Government;
Hon. Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden, Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament;
Hon. Dr. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali, Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government;

On behalf of Puntland:
Hon. Dr. Abdirahman Sheikh Mohamed Mahmud, President of Puntland;

On behalf of Galmudug:
Hon. Mohamed Ahmed Aalim, President of Galmudug;

On behalf of Ahlu-Sunna Wal Jama'a
Hon. Khalif Abdulkadir Moalim Nur, Representative of Ahlu-Sunna Wal Jama'a;

On behalf of the Secretary General of the UN for Somalia:
Hon. Dr. Augustine Mahiga, Special Representative;

[Page 9 has the same signatures in Somali]
Third parties
under the auspices of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Somalia.
7. Special Representative of the Secretary General of the UN for Somalia
Hon. Dr. Augustine Mahiga
[Signed]

[Not signatories] The stakeholder principles; Ambassadors from IGAD & AU; Minister of Endowment & Religious Affairs from Djibouti ...
Description
Principles agreed by the parties attending the Somali National Constitutional Consultative Conference 15-17 February 2012 convened by the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia hosted by Puntland State Government of Somalia and facilitated by the United Nations, under the auspices of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Somalia.

Agreement document
SO_120207_Garowe II Principles.pdf

Main category
Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
1. Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC)
... b. Membership:
... ii. The IIEC shall consist of at least 5 women members

Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
... 2. National Constituent Assembly (NCA)
... b. Membership shall be based on the following:
... ii. At least 300 (30%) members shall be women;

Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
... 2. National Constituent Assembly (NCA)
... b. Membership shall be based on the following:
... iii. the remaining 700 men and women shall be selected from [a cross section of society, including; youth/students, business people, the Diaspora, religious and traditional leaders, professionals, scholars and existing and emerging regional administrations.

Page 5, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
3 Relevant experience
d. Selection Process for member of the NCA:
... iv. To ensure that the minimum quota for women is implemented, women members shall be determined first;
v. Nomination lists that do not result in at least 30% women in the NCA must be rejected;

Page 6, 3. The New Federal Parliament
... e. Selection process of the new federal parliament
... iv. Women will make up at least 30% of the parliamentarians by way of a set aside along 4.5. Civil society and respected women members of the clans will nominate and select the women.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
1. Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC)
... b. Membership:
... ii. The IIEC shall consist of at least 5 women members

Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
... 2. National Constituent Assembly (NCA)
... b. Membership shall be based on the following:
... ii. At least 300 (30%) members shall be women;

Page 5, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
3 Relevant experience
d. Selection Process for member of the NCA:
... iv. To ensure that the minimum quota for women is implemented, women members shall be determined first;
v. Nomination lists that do not result in at least 30% women in the NCA must be rejected;

Page 6, 3. The New Federal Parliament
... e. Selection process of the new federal parliament
... iv. Women will make up at least 30% of the parliamentarians by way of a set aside along 4.5. Civil society and respected women members of the clans will nominate and select the women.
Effective participation
Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
... 2. National Constituent Assembly (NCA)
... b. Membership shall be based on the following:
... iii. the remaining 700 men and women shall be selected from [a cross section of society, including; youth/students, business people, the Diaspora, religious and traditional leaders, professionals, scholars and existing and emerging regional administrations.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 4, 3. Operationalizating Garowe I Principles
1. Interim Independent Electoral Commission (IIEC)
... b. Membership:
... ii. The IIEC shall consist of at least 5 women members
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh