The Garowe Principles on the Finalization and Adoption of the Constitution and the End of Transition (Garowe I)

Country/entity
Somalia
Puntland
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
The Garowe Principles on the Finalization and Adoption of the Constitution and the End of Transition (Garowe I)
Date
24/12/2011
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
Signatories:
1. Transitional Federal Government
President of the Transitional Federal Government
Hon. Sheikh Sharif
2. Transitional Federal Parliament
Speaker of the Transitional Federal Parliament
Hon. Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden
3. Transitional Federal Government
Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government
Ali Abdiweli Mohamed Ali
4. Puntland
President of Puntland
Dr. Abdirahman Sheikh Mohamed Mohamud
5. Galmudug
President of Galmudug
Mohamed Ahmed Aalim
6. Ahlu-Sunna Wal Jamaaca
Representative of Ahlu Sunna Wal Jamaaca
Sheikh Mohamed Mohamud Yusuf
7. Deputy Special Representative of the
Secretary Gegeral of the UN for Somalia
Christian Manah
Third parties
facilitated by the United Nations, under the auspices of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Somalia.
Description
Principles agreed by the parties attending the Somali National Constitutional Consultative Conference 21-23 December 1992 convened by the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia hosted by Puntland State Government of Somalia and facilitated by the United Nations, under the auspices of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Somalia.

Agreement document
SO_111224_Communique_of_Garowe_Consultative_Constitutional_Conference.pdf

Main category
Page 2, ... d. The National Constituent Assembly shall consist of a Maximum of 1,000 Delegates of which 30% shall be women.

Page 2, 2. Post-transition Parliamentary Structure
... b. The new Somali Federal Parliament shall comprise of 225 members of Parliament, with 20% women members.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 2, ... d. The National Constituent Assembly shall consist of a Maximum of 1,000 Delegates of which 30% shall be women.

Page 2, 2. Post-transition Parliamentary Structure
... b. The new Somali Federal Parliament shall comprise of 225 members of Parliament, with 20% women members.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh