Communique: The Mogadishu Declaration of the National Consultative Forum

Country/entity
Somalia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Communique: The Mogadishu Declaration of the National Consultative Forum
Date
16/12/2015
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Somali Civil War (1991 - )
Originally spurred by centre-peripheral tensions, fighting broke out in 1981 between the regime of President Said Barre and the Somali National Movement, a militia primarily consisting of members from the northern Ishaq clan. Fighting intensified in the late 1980s as more clan-based militias arose. President Barre’s regime collapsed in late 1991 and as a result the UN intervened. However persistent attacks on the UN’s forces forced a withdrawal in 1994. From the mid- to late 1990s, the character of the conflict shifted as warlords fought for access to rents. Also during this period, two different peace agreements arose; the Sodere Declaration, which was mediated by Ethiopia and supported by IGAD, and the Cairo Accord, which was brokered by Egypt. Fighting, already noticeably lessened compared to the early 1990s, decreased and the more amicable environment paved the way for the Transitional Government to be formed in 2000 (replaced in 2004 by the Transitional Federal Government).

Nonetheless, opposition to the TFG arose in the form of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), which by early 2006 had taken control of most of southern Somalia until they were ousted by an armed intervention by Ethiopia in December 2006. As a result, the ICU splintered. Hard-line ICU members formed the Takfiri organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, and launched a guerrilla campaign against the TFG. Another faction of the ICU fled to Djibouti and formed the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, which was absorbed into the ruling TFG after successful negotiations in 2007.

To deal with the new round of fighting, the UN-mandated AMISOM force was deployed in 2007. Since then, insecurity has fluctuated between the urban and rural areas as the al-Shabaab's territorial gains waver. Local militia leaders maintain de facto governance over communities. From 2009 to 2012, insecurity spilled-over into the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean when Somali pirates seized, looted and ransomed ships. In 2014, 'Operation Indian Ocean' was launched and in parallel with infighting among the al-Shabaab, the organisation's position in Somalia has diminished slightly. However, as evidenced by large-scale attacks by the al-Shabaab in northern Kenya throughout 2013-2015, the lack of security continues to destabilize the region. The al-Shabaab has been characterized as a spoiler in the Somali peace process and have therefore been placed outside of any negotiations.
Somali Civil War (1991 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
94: Somalia Peace Process
Parties
Somali representatives gathered in Mogadishu for the second plenary session of the National Consultative Forum.
Among the attendees were the President of the Federal Republic, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmaarke, the Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohammed Osman Jawari, the President of Puntland, Abdiweli Ali “Gaas”, the President of the South-West Administration, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, the President of Jubbaland, Ahmed Islaan “Madobe,” and the President of Galmudug, Abdulkarim Guled, as well as Federal ministers, members of the Federal Parliament, representatives from the executives of the regional administrations, the Deputy Governors of Benadir, Hiraan and Middle Shabelle and of Somali civil society, including women and youth.
Third parties
Description
An agreement of the National Consultative Forum as to elections principals and a road-map.

Agreement document
SO_151216_The Mogadishu Declaration.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Untitled preamble, Somali representatives gathered in Mogadishu for the second plenary session of the National Consultative Forum.
Among the attendees were the President of the Federal Republic, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmaarke, the Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohammed Osman Jawari, the President of Puntland, Abdiweli Ali “Gaas”, the President of the South-West Administration, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, the President of Jubbaland, Ahmed Islaan “Madobe,” and the President of Galmudug, Abdulkarim Guled, as well as Federal ministers, members of the Federal Parliament, representatives from the executives of the regional administrations, the Deputy Governors of Benadir, Hiraan and Middle Shabelle and of Somali civil society, including women and youth.

Page 1, Untitled preamble, Paragraph 5,
It was underlined that the Somali population is united in its desire to see a political transition when the mandates of the legislature and the executive end in August and September 2016, respectively. The active participation of women and youth was welcomed and it was emphasised that the electoral process must reflect the diversity of Somalia.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Somali representatives gathered in Mogadishu for the second plenary session of the National Consultative Forum.
Among the attendees were the President of the Federal Republic, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, the Prime Minister of the Federal Republic, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmaarke, the Speaker of the Federal Parliament, Mohammed Osman Jawari, the President of Puntland, Abdiweli Ali “Gaas”, the President of the South-West Administration, Sharif Hassan Sheikh Adan, the President of Jubbaland, Ahmed Islaan “Madobe,” and the President of Galmudug, Abdulkarim Guled, as well as Federal ministers, members of the Federal Parliament, representatives from the executives of the regional administrations, the Deputy Governors of Benadir, Hiraan and Middle Shabelle and of Somali civil society, including women and youth.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh