Agreement on the Bilateral and Final Ceasefire, End of Hostilities, and Surrender of Weapons

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Agreement on the Bilateral and Final Ceasefire, End of Hostilities, and Surrender of Weapons
Date
23/06/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
None
Parties
By the National Government:
Humberto de la Calle
Head of the National Government Peace Delegation

By the FARC -EP:
Iván Márquez
Head of the FARC-EP Peace Delegation
Third parties
By the Guarantor Countries:
By the Republic of Cuba
By the Kingdom of Norway

By the accompanying countries:
By the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
By the Republic of Chile
Description
This agreement provides for a final ceasefire, end of hostilities, and surrender of weapons between the national government and the FARC-EP. It defines bilateral and definitive ceasefire and end of hostilities as the “end the offensive actions between the Security Forces and the FARC-EP, as well as hostilities and any behaviour that is forbidden by the annexe of the rules” defined in this agreement. It defines surrender of weapons (DA) as “a traceable, technical and verifiable procedure through which the United Nations (UN) will receive the entirety of the FARC-EP’s arsenal so it can be used to build monuments.”
Specially, it defines how information should be provided to relevant authorities and commissions, broadcasting and communication of the progress of the implementation to national and international public, and the implementation time table. It further defines rules governing the CFHBD and DA, and provides for a Monitoring and Verification mechanism, dispute settlements procedures, territory-based and area-based mechanisms, transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation, security zone (around the zones of normalisation), encampment zones and transit routes, and procedure to surrender weapons.

Agreement document
CO_160623_Acuerdo Bilateral TR.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
CO_160623_borrador-conjunto-cfhbd-y-da.pdf

Main category
Page 6-7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]
During the term of the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, the FARC-EP will designate a group of 60 of its members (men and women) that can be mobilised at a national level to perform duties related to the Peace Agreement. Likewise, for each ZVTN, FARC-EP will designate a group of 10 of its members that can be mobilised at a municipal and departmental level, to fulfil tasks related to the Peace Agreement. For these offsets, members of the FARC-EP will agree on security measures with the National Government, which will make available two protection teams per zone for the movement. The exit from ZVTNs will be under the responsibility of FARC-EP orders.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 6-7, Transitional (Veredales) Zones of Normalisation:
[...]During the term of the Agreement on CFHBD and DA, the FARC-EP will designate a group of 60 of its members (men and women) that can be mobilised at a national level to perform duties related to the Peace Agreement. Likewise, for each ZVTN, FARC-EP will designate a group of 10 of its members that can be mobilised at a municipal and departmental level, to fulfil tasks related to the Peace Agreement. For these offsets, members of the FARC-EP will agree on security measures with the National Government, which will make available two protection teams per zone for the movement. The exit from ZVTNs will be under the responsibility of FARC-EP orders.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh