Country/entity
Algeria
Region
Middle East and North Africa
Agreement name
Civil Harmony Act
Date
13/07/1999
Agreement status
Unilateral document
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Algerian Civil War (1990 - 1998)
The conflict has involved secularist and Islamic political forces. After the Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) won local councils and the first round of national elections in 1990 and 1991 respectively, the ruling state party, Front Libération National (FLN) dissolved Algeria’s parliament and suspended the constitution and the army council took over the reins of government. After protests by FIS, the military regime imposed a state of emergency, effectively triggering off a bloody civil war as Islamist militias rose in opposition. The FIS split, and the breakaway Groupe Islamique Armé (GIA) became known for some of the most violent anti-government actors. Violence peaked in 1995 after the military candidate won in presidential elections. Heavily pressured by the military, FIS-loyalists declared a ceasefire in 1997 and after presidential elections in 1999, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika enacted a new amnesty law, which saw the number of insurgents shrink dramatically. By 2002, the GIA was effectively beaten militarily, however, various small Islamist groups continue to operate in the region.
Algerian Civil War (1990 - 1998) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
3: Algeria: Bouteflika Process
Parties
President and parliament of Algeria (signed by Abdelaziz Bouteflika, President of Algeria)
Third parties
Description
This law which emerged as a result of informal negotiations, as a 'unilateral' offering, provides for how to deal with past crimes and reconciliation.

Agreement document
DZ_990713_Civil Harmony Act.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
DZ_990720_Loi sur la concorde civile.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Chapter III, Probation, Art. 3,
Any person who was part of one of the organizations referred to in article 87 bis 3 of the penal code, either inside or outside of the country, will not be prosecuted. This will only be the case if they have not committed or participated in any of the offenses provided for in article 87 bis of the penal code that led to the death of or permanent disability of a man, rape, and have not used explosives in public places. They must, within a period of six (6) months from the date this act comes into force, notify the competent authorities that they have ceased any terrorist or subversive activity, and must voluntarily present themselves to these authorities. 

Page 2, Chapter III, Probation, Art. 7,
The following will benefit from probation measures , according to the time periods and conditions hereinafter determined: persons who were part of one of the organizations referred to in article 87 bis 3 of the penal code and who, within a period of six (6) months from the date this act comes into force have notified the competent authorities that they have ceased any terrorist or subversive activity, and have presented themselves, individually or collectively, to these authorities. 
Persons who have committed or participated in crimes that led to the death of a man, in collective massacres, in bombings in public places, or rape, will be excluded from the benefits described in this article.


Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Section II, Page 2:
Art.3.- Any person who was part of one of the organizations referred to in article 87 bis 3 of the penal code, either inside or outside of the country, will not be prosecuted. This will only be the case if they have not committed or participated in any of the offenses provided for in article 87 bis of the penal code that led to the death of or permanent disability of a man, rape, and have not used explosives in public places. They must, within a period of six (6) months from the date this act comes into force, notify the competent authorities that they have ceased any terrorist or subversive activity, and must voluntarily present themselves to these authorities.

Section III, Page 2:
Art. 7.- The following will benefit from probation measures , according to the time periods and conditions hereinafter determined: persons who were part of one of the organizations referred to in article 87 bis 3 of the penal code and who, within a period of six (6) months from the date this act comes into force have notified the competent authorities that they have ceased any terrorist or subversive activity, and have presented themselves, individually or collectively, to these authorities.
Persons who have committed or participated in crimes that led to the death of a man, in collective massacres, in bombings in public places, or rape, will be excluded from the benefits described in this article.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Section II, Page 2:
Art.3.- Any person who was part of one of the organizations referred to in article 87 bis 3 of the penal code, either inside or outside of the country, will not be prosecuted. This will only be the case if they have not committed or participated in any of the offenses provided for in article 87 bis of the penal code that led to the death of or permanent disability of a man, rape, and have not used explosives in public places. They must, within a period of six (6) months from the date this act comes into force, notify the competent authorities that they have ceased any terrorist or subversive activity, and must voluntarily present themselves to these authorities.

Section III, Page 2:
Art. 7.- The following will benefit from probation measures , according to the time periods and conditions hereinafter determined: persons who were part of one of the organizations referred to in article 87 bis 3 of the penal code and who, within a period of six (6) months from the date this act comes into force have notified the competent authorities that they have ceased any terrorist or subversive activity, and have presented themselves, individually or collectively, to these authorities.
Persons who have committed or participated in crimes that led to the death of a man, in collective massacres, in bombings in public places, or rape, will be excluded from the benefits described in this article.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh