Wunlit Dinka Nuer Covenant and Resolutions

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Wunlit Dinka Nuer Covenant and Resolutions
Date
08/03/1999
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
27: Sudan: Local Peace Processes
Parties
Dinka and Nuer Chiefs, church, civil and community leaders, elders, women and youth
Third parties
New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC)
Description
The covenant and resolutions from the Wunlit Peace Conference, proposes past provision mechanisms for abductees, refugees, etc. Agreement continues by proposing a mechanism for peace keeping on the border between Dinka Nuer grazing lands as well as how to continue the peace processes to a regional level.

Agreement document
SS_990308_Dinka Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference.pdf

Main category
Page 1, untitled preamble, This event proves , beyond any doubt , that such conferences that directly involve representatives of the concerned tribes from amongst the chiefs , dignitaries, men and women young and old , could establish a solid ground for a genuine dialogue between neighboring people and tribes ,thus, laying the foundation for sustainable peace between them.

Page 2, Wunlit Dinka Nuer Covenant, Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference, 27 February - 8 March 1999
Dinka and Nuer Chiefs, church, civil and community leaders, elders, women and youth have met in a peace and reconciliation meeting in Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan under the auspices of the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC).

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
A. Girls who have been abducted but are not yet married.
1. Shall be repatriated to their parents/relatives as soon as they are identified.

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... B. Girls who have been Married in Captivity
1. As soon as they are identified they shall be asked by their parents/relatives if they want to remain with their husbands.
2. If a woman declares that she wants to remain with her husband, than the bride wealth must be collected and presented to her parents/relatives.
3. If she desires to return to her parents/relatives she is to be repatriated.
4. If there are children of the marriage, the natural father may choose to redeem the children according to Dinka/Nuer traditions.
5. If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.
6. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the SPLA side, a letter should be sent to
Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, Chief of General Staff of SPLA, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the UDSF side, a letter should be sent to Commander Elijah Hon Tap, Chief of Staff of SSDF, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family.
• If she wants to return to her parents, then she must go.
• Whether she has a single child or several the natural father may choose to redeem the children, according to the custom of the Dinka/Nuer.
• If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... C. Married Women Abducted into Captivity
1. As soon as a woman in this category is identified she should be repatriated to her home area with all her children born in captivity.

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... D. Boys or Men in Captivity.
... 2. A man who has been provided a wife by his captor must be asked where he himself wants to live. If he chooses to return to live with his parents/relatives, then his family shall pay the bride wealth which was paid by his captor.
3. If his father/relatives pay the bride wealth on his behalf, then he is free to return to his land of origin with his children and wife.

Page 8, Resolutions, III. Resolutions Regarding: Institutional Arrangements
... A. Dinka-Nuer Peace Council
1. Composition: Three members, one of whom shall be a woman, shall be chosen by each county/province.

Page 11, Resolutions, VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria
... E. Participants in these conferences will be similar to what was done in Wunlit:
... 6. Copies of the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions should be widely disseminated to all communities and regions of the south as well as the Diaspora.
... 2. Women

Page 11-12, Resolutions, VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria
... F. These conferences shall be organised by:
... 5. Women’ s Leaders

Page 12, Resolutions, VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria
F. Roles for each group
... 2. Women
o As organised by local women’s associations
2. Venue and Date Options:
o Venue options: Akobo, Waat, Ayod

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 8, Resolutions, III. Resolutions Regarding: Institutional Arrangements
... A. Dinka-Nuer Peace Council
1. Composition: Three members, one of whom shall be a woman, shall be chosen by each county/province.
Effective participation
Page 1, untitled preamble, This event proves , beyond any doubt , that such conferences that directly involve representatives of the concerned tribes from amongst the chiefs , dignitaries, men and women young and old , could establish a solid ground for a genuine dialogue between neighboring people and tribes ,thus, laying the foundation for sustainable peace between them.

Page 2, Wunlit Dinka Nuer Covenant, Dinka-Nuer West Bank Peace and Reconciliation Conference, 27 February - 8 March 1999
Dinka and Nuer Chiefs, church, civil and community leaders, elders, women and youth have met in a peace and reconciliation meeting in Wunlit, Bahr el Ghazal, Sudan under the auspices of the New Sudan Council of Churches (NSCC).

Page 11-12, Resolutions, VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria
... F. These conferences shall be organised by:
... 5. Women’ s Leaders

Page 12, Resolutions, VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria
F. Roles for each group
... 2. Women
o As organised by local women’s associations
Other
Page 11, Resolutions, VI. Resolutions Regarding: Extending the Peace to the East Bank of the Nile and Equatoria
... E. Participants in these conferences will be similar to what was done in Wunlit:
... 6. Copies of the Wunlit Dinka-Nuer Covenant and Resolutions should be widely disseminated to all communities and regions of the south as well as the Diaspora.
... 2. Women
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
A. Girls who have been abducted but are not yet married.
1. Shall be repatriated to their parents/relatives as soon as they are identified.

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... B. Girls who have been Married in Captivity
1. As soon as they are identified they shall be asked by their parents/relatives if they want to remain with their husbands.
2. If a woman declares that she wants to remain with her husband, than the bride wealth must be collected and presented to her parents/relatives.
3. If she desires to return to her parents/relatives she is to be repatriated.
4. If there are children of the marriage, the natural father may choose to redeem the children according to Dinka/Nuer traditions.
5. If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.
6. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the SPLA side, a letter should be sent to Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, Chief of General Staff of SPLA, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the UDSF side, a letter should be sent to Commander Elijah Hon Tap, Chief of Staff of SSDF, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family.
• If she wants to return to her parents, then she must go.
• Whether she has a single child or several the natural father may choose to redeem the children, according to the custom of the Dinka/Nuer.
• If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... C. Married Women Abducted into Captivity
1. As soon as a woman in this category is identified she should be repatriated to her home area with all her children born in captivity.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
A. Girls who have been abducted but are not yet married.
1. Shall be repatriated to their parents/relatives as soon as they are identified.

Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... B. Girls who have been Married in Captivity
1. As soon as they are identified they shall be asked by their parents/relatives if they want to remain with their husbands.
2. If a woman declares that she wants to remain with her husband, than the bride wealth must be collected and presented to her parents/relatives.
3. If she desires to return to her parents/relatives she is to be repatriated.
4. If there are children of the marriage, the natural father may choose to redeem the children according to Dinka/Nuer traditions.
5. If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.
6. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the SPLA side, a letter should be sent to Commander Salva Kiir Mayardit, Chief of General Staff of SPLA, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family. If a woman is married to or held by a soldier on the UDSF side, a letter should be sent to Commander Elijah Hon Tap, Chief of Staff of SSDF, so that the girl is able to state before her parents/relatives whether she wants to remain with her soldier-husband or return to her family.
• If she wants to return to her parents, then she must go.
• Whether she has a single child or several the natural father may choose to redeem the children, according to the custom of the Dinka/Nuer.
• If the father refuses to redeem the children, the mother is free to leave with them.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 4, Resolutions, I. Resolutions Regarding: Missing Persons and Marriages to Abductees
... D. Boys or Men in Captivity.
... 2. A man who has been provided a wife by his captor must be asked where he himself wants to live. If he chooses to return to live with his parents/relatives, then his family shall pay the bride wealth which was paid by his captor.
3. If his father/relatives pay the bride wealth on his behalf, then he is free to return to his land of origin with his children and wife.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh