Dinka Nuer West Bank Peace Council Communication

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Dinka Nuer West Bank Peace Council Communication
Date
30/09/1999
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
27: Sudan: Local Peace Processes
Parties
Twenty-three Council Members from the eleven counties and provinces along the border areas of Bahr el Ghazal and Western Upper Nile regions;
Sudan Telar Deng, Peace Council Chairman

Working Group 1: Return of Missing Persons, Abductees and Cattle
1. Mrs. Awut Deng Acuil, Chairperson
2. Mr. George Mut Nyang, Co-Chairman
3. Mr. Gabriel Anyar Madut, Secretary
4. Mr. Ambrose Akec Rong, Member
5. Chief Malony Kulang, Member
6. Chief Bahon Mabior Deng, Member
7. Chief Gabriel Kuol Buth, Member
8. Chief Manyiel Liany Wol, Member
9. Chief Mathew Riek Toal, Member
10. Chief Mangol Matet Dhieu, Member
11. Judge Akec Ajuong Tokmac, Member
12. Mrs. Elizabeth Nyamac Chan, Member
13. Mrs. Rebeka Atet Makuei, Member
14. Mrs. Elizabeth Nyankuer, Member
15. Mrs. Sarah Nyiebol Kai, Member

Working Group II. Members
1. Mario Muor Muor, Co-chairman
2. Michael Thoat Jany, Co-chairman
3. Andrew A. Yaak, Secretary
4. Isaiah Alier Mashinkok, Member
5. Ayan Maguat Ruai, Member
6. Yar Malek Malual, Member
7. James Gatwak Tap, Member
8. James Ruai Keat, Member
9. Marco Pam Kap, Member
10. Gideon Beding Jakgei, Member
11. Aggostino Agany Dut, Member
12. Peter Ring Patai, Meber
13. Joseph Riak Gatkek, Member
14. Daniel Ayual Makoi, Member
15. Dabora Yar Jany, Member
16. Juol Macok Lieny, Member
17. Susana Ayen Macok, Member
Third parties
New Sudan Council of Churches
Description
Agreement is an implementation agreement from the Wunlit Conference that deals with past provisions for missing people, abductees, and cattle rustling. The agreement catelogs and deals with the specifics of these agenda items in detail.

Agreement document
SS_990930_Dinka Nuer West Bank Peace Council Communication.pdf

Main category
Page 3, Working Group I. Members
1. Mrs. Awut Deng Acuil, Chairperson
... 12. Mrs. Elizabeth Nyamac Chan, Member
13. Mrs. Rebeka Atet Makuei, Member
14. Mrs. Elizabeth Nyankuer, Member
15. Mrs. Sarah Nyiebol Kai, Member


Page 4, Working Group I, Return of Missing Persons, Abductees & Cattle
... The raid was executed by individuals from four areas, with number of cattle already returned, as follows:
... The Dinka who went to raid Nuer were provoked by Nuer who came to raid cattle from Agar and which were then retrieved by SPLA soldiers who then returned to abduct the girl named Ayiep Manyiel Atembai which had caused the raid of Nuer cattle by Dinka.

Page 4-5, Working Group I, Return of Missing Persons, Abductees & Cattle
D. Strategies. The following are three strategies to solve the issue of missing persons and cattle:
... 3. It is like number A. except that there is a point added to have certificate from relevant authorities on both sides such as to be issued by Payam administrators or Ex. Chiefs to those going to search for missing persons and cattle. Insofar as H.E. the Commissioner of Rumbek County suggested two points for the members of the Peace Council to discuss and resolve:
a. In case of any marriage the father of the girl from the two parties should delegate a number of relatives to settle the marriage in order to collect the bride price in a group rather than a single person coming to collect the bride price and taking a different direction without reporting back to relatives who will later deny that the bride price has been received.

Page 8, Appendix, A. Abductees returned between the Dinka of Rumbek County and the Nuer of Nyuong and Leer Provinces
... 3. Nyagon Ruac, a girl, is now staying with Agar Pakam and she refused to go back to ther parents among the Nuer.

Page 8, Appendix, A. Abductees returned between the Dinka of Rumbek County and the Nuer of Nyuong and Leer Provinces
... 4. The daughter of Manyang Nhial was married by an Agar man.

Page 8, Appendix, A. Abductees returned between the Dinka of Rumbek County and the Nuer of Nyuong and Leer Provinces
... 5. Nyieth Agontol from Agar Pakam section married the daughter of a Nuer with a bride price of 10 head of cattle and they were received by Chief Kok Yar of Nuer.

Page 8, Appendix, A. Abductees returned between the Dinka of Rumbek County and the Nuer of Nyuong and Leer Provinces
... 9. The daughter of Partap, a Nuer, has been married by an Agar man, and has to date given birth to one child.

Page 8, Appendix, A. Abductees returned between the Dinka of Rumbek County and the Nuer of Nyuong and Leer Provinces
... 10. The daughter of Cieny Buoth, named Akuac, has married a man named Malieny with the bride price of 40 cows having been paid.

Page 8, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 2. Three children and one wife of Chief Amac Kuocnin have been returned.

Page 8, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 4. The wife of Matueng Angong, a woman from Nuer, is now officially married with the payment of five cows by the family of the husband.

Page 8, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 5. Majak Aciengedie, of Yirol, had abducted the daughter of Duop Makuac of Nuer, but has now returned her to her father.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 6. The daughter of Manyuel Bapal was staying with her maternal uncle, who is from Agar Dinka, and married an Agar man of the area. Chief Manyiel Lieny of Pakam is the uncle of the husband and has officially concluded the marriage with the bride price payment of 40 heard of cattle made to her parents in Nuer area.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 7. Five married Nuer women were abducted by people of Yirol and were remarried. Though they have been identified they have not yet been released at time of writing.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 8. The community of Yirol have released 23 persons who had been abducted from Nuer. Of these 5 women who had been married among the Dinka refused to return to their people.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 9. The lady Agony Nyieth of Nuer, is the mother of four children by her husband. Wut Ruat. She and her children were staying among the Dinka of Yirol at the time of the 1991 split. After Wunlit they were all allowed to return to their people.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 10. The wife of Maker Monuer is missing, thought to be among the Nuer.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 11. The wife of Majok Malueth is missing.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 13. The wife of Muorwel Nyot has now returned from Nuer with her 2 children

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 14. The daughter of Acol, a woman from Agar, has been married by a Nuer, and is now staying with a certain Riek Boshop.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 15. Magok Ater, of Agar, had been living with his Nuer wife in Nuerland with the 3 children to whom she had given birth. Amidst fighting related to the 1991 split Mogok fled to his homeland. In his absence his wife gave birth 4 more children by a Nuer men. With the Wunlit Conference all 7 children were returned with their mother to Magok Ater, now living in Rumbek

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 16. The Nuer wife of Magar Aciek was abducted by Nuer with her son, but since Wunlit has been brought back to her husband in Yirol.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 17. Efforts have been made to restor Ayor, a Dinka, to her husband, Bol Riak of Yirol, but she has refused to return.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 20. The daughter of Gai Nang named Nyagok, together with her three children, were released to return to their home in Agar area.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 22. The wife of Daniel Galuak had been abducted by the Agar, but has now been restored back to her Nuer people.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 23. The daughter of Manyiel Aciek, named Ayiep Manyiel, of Agar is still with Buoth Gei in Nuer area.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 24. Five young women of Nuer have been located, 4 of whom have been officially married by Dinka men of Rumbek and one married by a man from Yirol. However, there were no Dinka girls who have been married by Nuer.

Page 9, Appendix, C. Missing people from Nuer now in Rumbek County
1. The wife of Maleel Puaal with her 3 children, missing
... 7. 4 children of Macol Makar, missing; among these children one daughter is known to have been married.
... 9. 2 children of Mawec Kual, missing. Of these one daughter has been married.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Other
Page 3, Working Group I. Members
1. Mrs. Awut Deng Acuil, Chairperson
... 12. Mrs. Elizabeth Nyamac Chan, Member
13. Mrs. Rebeka Atet Makuei, Member
14. Mrs. Elizabeth Nyankuer, Member
15. Mrs. Sarah Nyiebol Kai, Member
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 4, Working Group I, Return of Missing Persons, Abductees & Cattle
... The raid was executed by individuals from four areas, with number of cattle already returned, as follows:
... The Dinka who went to raid Nuer were provoked by Nuer who came to raid cattle from Agar and which were then retrieved by SPLA soldiers who then returned to abduct the girl named Ayiep Manyiel Atembai which had caused the raid of Nuer cattle by Dinka.

[Agreement lists the fate of several abducted women from the different tribes. See Past and Gender]
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 8, Appendix, A. Abductees returned between the Dinka of Rumbek County and the Nuer of Nyuong and Leer Provinces
... 3. Nyagon Ruac, a girl, is now staying with Agar Pakam and she refused to go
4. The daughter of Manyang Nhial was married by an Agar man.
5. Nyieth Agontol from Agar Pakam section married the daughter of a Nuer with a bride price of 10 head of cattle and they were received by Chief Kok Yar of Nuer.
... 9. The daughter of Partap, a Nuer, has been married by an Agar man, and has to date given birth to one child.
10. The daughter of Cieny Buoth, named Akuac, has married a man named Malieny with the bride price of 40 cows having been paid.

Page 8, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 2. Three children and one wife of Chief Amac Kuocnin have been returned.
4. The wife of Matueng Angong, a woman from Nuer, is now officially married with the payment of five cows by the family of the husband.
5. Majak Aciengedie, of Yirol, had abducted the daughter of Duop Makuac of Nuer, but has now returned her to her father.

Page 9, Appendix, B. Abductees returned between the Dinka Atuot of Yirol County and the Nuer of Leer Province
... 6. The daughter of Manyuel Bapal was staying with her maternal uncle, who is from Agar Dinka, and married an Agar man of the area. Chief Manyiel Lieny of Pakam is the uncle of the husband and has officially concluded the marriage with the bride price payment of 40 heard of cattle made to her parents in Nuer area.
7. Five married Nuer women were abducted by people of Yirol and were remarried. Though they have been identified they have not yet been released at time of writing.
8. The community of Yirol have released 23 persons who had been abducted from Nuer. Of these 5 women who had been married among the Dinka refused to return to their people.
9. The lady Agony Nyieth of Nuer, is the mother of four children by her husband. Wut Ruat. She and her children were staying among the Dinka of Yirol at the time of the 1991 split. After Wunlit they were all allowed to return to their people.
10. The wife of Maker Monuer is missing, thought to be among the Nuer.
11. The wife of Majok Malueth is missing.
... 13. The wife of Muorwel Nyot has now returned from Nuer with her 2 children
14. The daughter of Acol, a woman from Agar, has been married by a Nuer, and is now staying with a certain Riek Boshop.
15. Magok Ater, of Agar, had been living with his Nuer wife in Nuerland with the 3 children to whom she had given birth. Amidst fighting related to the 1991 split Mogok fled to his homeland. In his absence his wife gave birth 4 more children by a Nuer men. With the Wunlit Conference all 7 children were returned with their mother to Magok Ater, now living in Rumbek.
16. The Nuer wife of Magar Aciek was abducted by Nuer with her son, but since Wunlit has been brought back to her husband in Yirol.
17. Efforts have been made to restor Ayor, a Dinka, to her husband, Bol Riak of Yirol, but she has refused to return.
... 20. The daughter of Gai Nang named Nyagok, together with her three children, were released to return to their home in Agar area.
... 22. The wife of Daniel Galuak had been abducted by the Agar, but has now been restored back to her Nuer people.
23. The daughter of Manyiel Aciek, named Ayiep Manyiel, of Agar is still with Buoth Gei in Nuer area.
24. Five young women of Nuer have been located, 4 of whom have been officially married by Dinka men of Rumbek and one married by a man from Yirol. However, there were no Dinka girls who have been married by Nuer.

Page 9, Appendix, C. Missing people from Nuer now in Rumbek County
1. The wife of Maleel Puaal with her 3 children, missing
... 7. 4 children of Macol Makar, missing; among these children one daughter is known to have been married.
... 9. 2 children of Mawec Kual, missing. Of these one daughter has been married.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
Page 4-5, Working Group I, Return of Missing Persons, Abductees & Cattle
D. Strategies. The following are three strategies to solve the issue of missing persons and cattle:
... 3. It is like number A. except that there is a point added to have certificate from relevant authorities on both sides such as to be issued by Payam administrators or Ex. Chiefs to those going to search for missing persons and cattle. Insofar as H.E. the Commissioner of Rumbek County suggested two points for the members of the Peace Council to discuss and resolve:
a. In case of any marriage the father of the girl from the two parties should delegate a number of relatives to settle the marriage in order to collect the bride price in a group rather than a single person coming to collect the bride price and taking a different direction without reporting back to relatives who will later deny that the bride price has been received.

The University of Edinburgh