Liliir Covenant between the Anyuak, Dinka, Jie, Kachipo, Murle and Nuer who attended the East Bank People-to-People Peace and Reconciliation Conference in Liliir, Bor County, Upper Nile, Sudan

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Liliir Covenant between the Anyuak, Dinka, Jie, Kachipo, Murle and Nuer who attended the East Bank People-to-People Peace and Reconciliation Conference in Liliir, Bor County, Upper Nile, Sudan
Date
15/05/2000
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
27: Sudan: Local Peace Processes
Parties
A gathering of traditional and civil leaders was convened in Liliir (Bor, county), to reconcile the differences and conflicts between the Anyuak, Dinka (Bor & Padang), Jie, Kachipo, Murle (Boma) and Nuer (Gawaar & Lou)
Third parties
Under the facilitation of the NSCC
Description
Traditional and civil leaders met in Liliir (Bor, county), to reconcile the differences and conflicts between the Anyuak, Dinka (Bor & Padang), Jie, Kachipo, Murle (Boma) and Nuer (Gawaar & Lou). Agreement calls an amnesty, return of abductees, freedom of movement, that cross border arrangements are adhered to, good governance, human rights, respect for police, and the return of displaced peoples. Agreement mentions an appendix that was not attached.

Agreement document
SS_000515_LILIIR COVENANT.pdf

Main category
Page 1, We have unanimously agreed that:
... - all abducted women and children are freely returned to their places of origin, and where necessary, marriage customs are fulfilled;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 1, We have unanimously agreed that:
... - all abducted women and children are freely returned to their places of origin, and where necessary, marriage customs are fulfilled;
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh