All-Jonglei Conference for Peace, Reconciliation and Tolerance, held in Bor, 1-5 May 2012: Conference Resolutions and Recommendations

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
All-Jonglei Conference for Peace, Reconciliation and Tolerance, held in Bor, 1-5 May 2012: Conference Resolutions and Recommendations
Date
05/05/2012
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
27: Sudan: Local Peace Processes
Parties
the eighty four (84) chiefs, elders, women and youth representing all eleven counties and all six communities of Jonglei State
Third parties
Governor Kuol Manyang Juuk;
national and state ministers;
members of the national and state legislative assemblies;
chairpersons of national commissions;
County Commissioners;
religious leaders;
intellectuals;
UNMISS;
international observers and experts;
rganised by the Presidential Committee for Peace, Reconciliation and Tolerance in Jonglei State.
Description
Conference outcome document listing the problems and potential means of resolving issues in Jonglei state. Document has an appendix with an implementation timeline and task divisions. Issues include the abduction of women, children, elderly and disabled; theft of livestock; insecurity; food insecurity; IDPS, etc. Traditional leadership is granted more autonomy in the South Sudanese state structure.

Agreement document
120505_SS_JONGLEI STATE COMMUNITIES CONFERENCE FOR PEACE, RECONCILIATION AND TOLERANCE.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Preamble, eighty four (84) chiefs, elders, women and youth representing all eleven counties and all six communities of Jonglei State met in the Jonglei State Communities Conference in Bor from 1st - 5th May 2012.

Page 2, Problem Statement,
3. Killing of vulnerable persons (including children, women, elderly, disabled)
The scale of fighting has escalated, with the killing and mutilation of women, children, elderly and disabled. This is different to traditional conflicts.

Page 2, Problem Statement,
4. Abduction of women and children, whether by violence, kidnapping or trafficking
Abduction of women and children is a major problem. In some cases they are kidnapped rather than abducted violently, and sometimes they are trafficked.

Page 3, RESOLUTIONS, B. Insecurity caused by conflict between communities
... b) Combat woman and child abduction and trafficking.

Page 4, RESOLUTIONS, C. Killing of vulnerable persons (including women, children, elderly, disabled)
a) Stop wanton killing.
b) Waive compensation for those killed in the past.
c) Compensation to be paid for those killed since the beginning of the current disarmament campaign, as a deterrent.

Page 4, RESOLUTIONS, D. Abduction of women and children, whether by violence, kidnapping or trafficking
a) Tracing and identification of abductees.
b) Immediate return of abductees where possible.
c) Regularisation of status by negotiation for those who cannot be returned.
d) Registration of births, marriages and deaths.

Page 4, RESOLUTIONS, E. Theft of livestock
... c) Chiefs to control thieves, raiders and abductors. Bride price to be discussed in each community.

Page 5, RECOMMENDATIONS, J. Killing of vulnerable persons (including women, children, elderly, disabled)
a) Arrest and trial of culprits.

b) Government to protect civilians.

c) Government to address threats by armed insurgents.

Page 5, RECOMMENDATIONS, K. Abduction of women and children, whether by violence, kidnapping or trafficking
a) Enforcement of rule of law to prevent abduction and trafficking.
b) Trial of culprits, including traffickers, and severe punishment.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 1, Preamble, eighty four (84) chiefs, elders, women and youth representing all eleven counties and all six communities of Jonglei State met in the Jonglei State Communities Conference in Bor from 1st - 5th May 2012.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Protection (general)
Page 2, Problem Statement,
3. Killing of vulnerable persons (including children, women, elderly, disabled)
The scale of fighting has escalated, with the killing and mutilation of women, children, elderly and disabled. This is different to traditional conflicts.

Page 2, Problem Statement,
4. Abduction of women and children, whether by violence, kidnapping or trafficking
Abduction of women and children is a major problem. In some cases they are kidnapped rather than abducted violently, and sometimes they are trafficked.

Page 3, RESOLUTIONS, B. Insecurity caused by conflict between communities
... b) Combat woman and child abduction and trafficking.

Page 4, RESOLUTIONS, C. Killing of vulnerable persons (including women, children, elderly, disabled)
a) Stop wanton killing.

b) Waive compensation for those killed in the past.
c) Compensation to be paid for those killed since the beginning of the current disarmament campaign, as a deterrent.

Page 5, RECOMMENDATIONS, J. Killing of vulnerable persons (including women, children, elderly, disabled)
a) Arrest and trial of culprits.

b) Government to protect civilians.

c) Government to address threats by armed insurgents.

Page 5, RECOMMENDATIONS, K. Abduction of women and children, whether by violence, kidnapping or trafficking
a) Enforcement of rule of law to prevent abduction and trafficking.
b) Trial of culprits, including traffickers, and severe punishment.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 4, RESOLUTIONS, D. Abduction of women and children, whether by violence, kidnapping or trafficking
a) Tracing and identification of abductees.

b) Immediate return of abductees where possible.

c) Regularisation of status by negotiation for those who cannot be returned.
d) Registration of births, marriages and deaths.

Page 4, RESOLUTIONS, E. Theft of livestock
... c) Chiefs to control thieves, raiders and abductors. Bride price to be discussed in each community.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh