Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace

Country/entity
Colombia
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace
Date
24/11/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Colombian Conflict (1964 - )
The Colombian conflict is really a set of conflicts and the peace agreements reflect both different processes relating to different conflict groups and dyads, and processes taking place at different times in a complex peace process history. The Colombian civil war has its roots in the late 1940s and the violent infighting between liberal and the conservative factions. Emerging from the liberal tradition with a thorough grounding in nationalist communist ideology, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (FARC) began its armed insurrection against the Colombian government in 1964. Other left-wing guerrillas emerged as well, most notably the socialist/populist M-19, which would later be integrated into the formal political system in the peace process of 1990s; the National Liberation Army (ELN), which has strong roots in liberation theology, and the Maoist Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL) (also part of the 1990 process, less successfully). Several stages of peace processes were undertaken by the various sides, which were further complicated by the emergence of right-wing paramilitary ‘self-defence’ forces. The peace agreement between the Colombian government under President Uribe and the main alliance of the paramilitary groups, the United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC), concluded in 2005 and is still heavily disputed as several remnants are still active, but now subsumed under the heading ‘Bacrim’ (Bandas criminales). In addition, FARC and ELN maintain a military presence, but both demonstrate a strong interest in completing successful peace negotiations with the government, with the most recent agreements being between FARC and the Government.

Colombian Conflict (1964 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
110: Colombia V - Santos
Parties
National Government of Colombia
FARC-EP (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia - Ejército del Pueblo)
Third parties
Republic of Cuba and from the Kingdom of Norway
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the Republic of Chile
Description
This is the Final Agreement reached between the National Government of Colombia and the FARC-EP, in order to end the armed conflict and build a stable and lasting peace. The Agreement was first reached and signed on 24 August 2016, but was put to a referendum which narrowly failed to succeed, leading to revisions of the agreement and this version being signed as the final version. The agreement is only entered once, this being its final iteration.

The Agreement is composed in 6 parts, which were negotiated as separate agreements and then all agreed as a whole:

1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform (p. 10-33)
2. Political Participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace (p. 34-56)
3. En of the Conflict (p. 57-103)
4. Solution to the Illicit Drugs Problem (p. 104-131)
5. Agreement regarding the Victims of the Conflict: "Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence", including the Special Jurisdiction for Peace; and Commitment to Human Rights (p. 132-203)
6. Implementation, verification and public endorsement (p. 204-231)

There is also a final part of Protocols and Annexes (p. 232-322) mainly related to the Ceasefire agreement and the Amnesty Law, including a draft of the latter.

Agreement document
Colombian Peace Agreement English Translation.pdf

Agreement document (original language)
Map of Chapter Provisions for Colombia Peace Agreement .pdf

Main category
Summary: The agreement in its entirety makes consistent references to women.

Chapter 1
Page 10, 1: Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform, Preamble
A genuine structural transformation of the countryside requires … rural women

Page 11, 1: Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform, Preamble

The CRR recognises the productive and reproductive role of women …

Pages 11-12, 1: Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform, Preamble
In the area of food and nutrition, the CRR aims to ensure that the entire rural and urban population in Colombia has sufficient access to and availability of the foodstuffs… especially in the case of boys and girls, pregnant or breast-feeding women, and the elderly, prioritising the production of food and the generation of income.

The plans and programmes agreed as part of the CRR are to have a gender-based …. perspective that will require the recognition and consideration of the economic, cultural and social needs, characteristics and peculiarities of … women throughout their life-cycle…

Page 14, 1.1.1. Comprehensive Rural Reform Land Fund
With a view to achieving the democratisation of access to land… especially rural women … the National Government is to create a Land Fund for the free distribution of land.
Page 15, 1.1.2. Other mechanisms for promoting access to land:

Comprehensive purchase subsidy: the National Government will grant a comprehensive subsidy for the purchase of land by beneficiaries (see 1.1.3.) in priority areas… and will include specific measures to facilitate the access of women to the subsidy.

Page 16,
1.1.3. Beneficiary persons:
the beneficiaries of the plan of land distribution, the comprehensive subsidy and the special credit, … including… rural women, female heads of households ...

1.1.8. Certain mechanisms to resolve conflicts concerning possession and use of land and the strengthening of food production:
Furthermore, the National Government will, to the same end, set in motion … legal advice and special training for women regarding their rights and access to justice, together with specific measures for overcoming barriers that constitute obstacles to the recognition and protection of women’s rights over land. The participation of women and women’s organisations in the various spaces created for conciliation and the resolution of conflicts concerning land use and possession will be promoted.

Page 22, 1.2. Development Programmes with a Territorial-Based Focus (DPTFs)

The recognition and promotion of community organisations, including organisations of rural women, enabling them to become protagonists in the structural transformation of the countryside;

Page 26, 1.3.2.1. Health:
The adoption of an equity- and gender-based approach that takes account of the health requirements of women, in accordance with their life cycle, including measures to address sexual and reproductive health, psychosocial care and the special measures for pregnant women and children in the areas of prevention, health promotion and treatment.

The promotion of vocational training for women in disciplines that are not the traditional preserve of women.

Page 28, 1.3.3.1. Stimuli for a solidarity and cooperative economy:
with the aim of stimulating different associative forms of work … especially in rural women… the National Government will set up and implement the National Plan to Foment the Rural Solidarity and Cooperative Economy (Plan nacional de fomento a la economía solidaria y cooperativa rural). Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:
• … agro-ecological production and women's organisations.

Page 32, 1.3.3.5. Formalisation of the rural labour market and social protection: …
Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:

Promoting schemes for protection during pregnancy, childbirth, breast-feeding and health services for newborns, by progressively extending the coverage and enhancing the quality of family health and subsidy systems, with particular focus on rural working women.

Chapter 2
Page 34, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, Preamble
Taking account of the fact that women face greater social and institutional barriers in terms of political participation, as a result of deep-rooted discrimination and inequality, as well as structural conditions of exclusion and subordination, there will be significant challenges in guaranteeing their right to participation, and facing up to and transforming these historical conditions will involve developing affirmative measures that will safeguard women's participation in the various areas of political and social representation. To that end, the situation and condition of women in all contexts and in all special aspects will have to be acknowledged.

Page 35, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, Preamble
The National Government and the FARC-EP recognise that:
In consolidating citizen participation on the part of women, their social agendas have to be appreciated and their contribution to public life as political subjects has to be recognised, especially in the area of the promotion and defence of their rights.
… The promotion not only of political pluralism but also social movements and organisations, particularly of women, young people and other sectors excluded from the exercise of politics and, in general, the democratic debate, requires new forums for dissemination in order that parties, organisations and communities involved in peacebuilding can gain access to space on national, regional and local channels and broadcasters.

Pages 36-37, 2.1.1.1. Statute of guarantees for the exercise of political opposition
…In addition, the following political groups representing the opposition will be called to take part in the Commission: the Marcha Patriótica political movement and the Congreso de los Pueblos political movement, and also two experts delegated by the FARC-EP. The Commission will provide the forums or mechanisms for receiving input and proposals from other political groups wishing to take part in the discussion. Care will be taken to ensure that the parties, movements and other groups called to the Commission include female representation.

Page 37, 2.1.2. Security guarantees for the exercise of politics
…The new System will incorporate special measures for women, and these are to include positive evaluation of their involvement in public life.

Page 38, 2.1.2.1. Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics
Appropriate regulations and institutions: • Creation of a high-level unit:

Page 40, 2.1.2.1. Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics:
The System will include the following elements:
d. Evaluation and follow-up:
• … This system will include specific information as to risks and threats concerning the participation and the political, social and community representation of women…

Page 42, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including those concerning direct participation, at various levels and in various subject areas

Through legal and technical assistance, support for the creation and consolidation of social movements and organisations. Notwithstanding the principle of equality, support will be given in the form of extraordinary measures to organisations of women…

Page 45, 2.2.3. Citizen participation through community, institutional and regional media
…In addition, in an end-of-conflict scenario, the community, institutional and regional media will play a part in the development and promotion of a culture of participation… its content incorporating non-discriminatory values and respect for the rights of women to a life free from violence.

Page 47, 2.2.4. Guarantees for reconciliation, coexistence, tolerance and non-stigmatisation, especially by reason of political and social action within the context of mutual respect
The Council will have the function of advising and monitoring the Government in implementing mechanisms and actions, which are to include:
The promotion of non-stigmatisation of groups in vulnerable circumstances or discriminated against, such as women…

Page 48, 2.2.5. Citizen control and oversight
The citizen control and oversight mechanisms envisaged will include effective participation by women.

Pages 49-50, 2.2.6. Policy for strengthening democratic, participatory planning
a.

To promote female participation in the Territorial Councils.

d. …The National Government will adopt measures to facilitate the effective participation of women in this scenario, including measures to make it possible to overcome obstacles concerning women's carer and reproductive roles…

Page 54, 2.3.5. Promotion of a democratic and participatory political culture
… women…
… A programme to promote political participation and leadership by women.

Page 55, 2.3.6. Promotion of the political representation of populations and zones particularly affected by the conflict and neglect
In any event, candidates must be people who regularly live in said territories or have been displaced from them and are in the process of returning. Candidates may be registered by significant groups of citizens or organisations in an electoral district, such organisations of women…

Pages 55-56, 2.3.7. Promotion of women's political and citizen participation within the context of this Agreement…

Page 56, 2.3.8. Creation of a new space for providing media access to political movements and parties

This channel will also be a way in which to provide information on the work of victims’ organisations, social movements and organisations, to promote a democratic culture of peace and reconciliation and of non-discriminatory values with respect for the right of women to a life free of violenceSummary: The agreement in its entirety makes consistent references to women.

Chapter 3
Page 69, 3.2. Reincorporation of the FARC-EP into civilian life – in economic, social and political matters – in accordance with its interests
… Every component of the reincorporation process shall have an equity-based approach, with a particular emphasis on women’s rights.

Page 72, 3.2.1.2. Political representation
These spokespeople must be called to all sessions in which the corresponding draft legislative acts or laws are discussed and may intervene with the same powers as the Congressmen and -women during the legislative procedure, apart from the vote. The requirements for carrying out their work shall be defined in conjunction with the Ministry of the Interior.

Page 81, 3.4.1. Guiding principles
Gender-based approach…

Page 81, 3.4.2. National Political Pact:
…The National Government and the new political movement that emerges from the transition of the FARC-EP to legal political activity undertake to promote a National Political Pact from the regions, with the aid of...women’s organisations..

Page 84, 3.4.3. Control of inputs

g. It shall plan and draw up strategies, within its jurisdiction, to identify the funding sources and patterns of criminal activity of the organisations and conduct that are the subject of this agreement; among those patterns shall be taken into account those that particularly affect women…

Page 87, 3.4.4. Special Investigation Unit for the dismantling of criminal organisations and criminal acts…

• As an operating basis, this Unit shall take a multidimensional investigative approach which deals with the entire criminal chain of the organisations and conduct that are the subject of its mandate, including criminal conduct affecting women…

Page 89, 3.4.4. Special Investigation Unit for the dismantling of criminal organisations and criminal acts…
Jurisdiction
The Special Unit:
• Shall implement specialised investigation methodological plans in relation to the most serious acts of victimisation undertaken against women….

Chapter 4
Page 104, 4. Solution to the Illicit Drugs Problem, Preamble
That many regions and communities across the country, especially those in conditions of poverty and neglect, have been directly affected by the cultivation, production and sale of illicit drugs, leading to a deepening of their marginalisation, inequality, gender-based violence and a lack of development.

That these phenomena have a severe influence on specific forms of violence that particularly affect women, victims of human trafficking, sexual exploitation and violence resulting from the use of illicit drugs, among others, which requires the training of women in the planning and monitoring of action to combat this kind of violence.

Pages 109-110, 4.1.1. Principles
Equity-based approach according to the conditions in each territory: the NCPS implemented must … recognise and take account of the economic, cultural and social issues, characteristics and needs of the territories and rural communities, in particular …. of women in these communities and territories…

Page 111, 4.1.2. Aims
• Strengthening the participation and capabilities of small-scale farmer’s organisations, including rural women’s organisations, to provide support (technical, financial, human support, inter alia) for their projects.
• Involving women as active subjects in the agreement processes in relation to voluntary substitution, recognising their active role in the processes of rural development

Page 112, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes
….It will be ensured that women are involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the comprehensive plans for the substitution of crops used for illicit purposes and alternative agrarian development, and that women receive training to prevent gender-based violence associated with drugs.

Page 124, 4.2.1.1. Principles: The national policy to tackle illicit drug use will be guided by the following principles:
… • Equity-based and gender-based approach.. This approach should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. Measures will be provided for women, and adolescent and young girls.

Chapter 5
Page 134, 5. Agreement regarding the Victims of the Conflict…. preamble
The armed conflict, which has multiple causes, has inflicted suffering and loss on the people … such as sexual violence, psychological damage or simply living in fear.

Page 146, 5.1.1.1.4. Duties:
• Ensure that the gender-based approach runs through each and every aspect of the Commission, by creating a gender-based task force in charge of specific technical tasks, investigation and holding of hearings, inter alia.… for liaising with women’s … organisations.

Page 154, 5.1.2. Justice
SPECIAL JURISDICTION FOR PEACE
I. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE JUDICIAL COMPONENT OF THE COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM FOR TRUTH, JUSTICE, REPARATIONS AND NON-RECURRENCE (CS)

7.- In addition, the consequences of such violations are most serious when they are committed against women or when victims belong to the most vulnerable groups, subjects of special protection, who deserve reparations and special protection, including indigenous peoples, AfroColombian communities and other ethnically distinct groups, religious communities, rural communities, the poorest, the disabled, the displaced and refugees, children, and adolescents, the LGBTI population and the elderly.
8.- The judicial component will function in a way that emphasises the needs of women and child victims…. Reparations must be in line with the United Nations’ call for all peace agreements to adopt a gender focus, recognising reparative and restorative measures, the special suffering of women, and the importance of their active and fair participation in the judicial component of the CS.

Page 179, 5.1.2. Justice
SPECIAL JURISDICTION FOR PEACE
III. PROCEDURE, BODIES AND SANCTIONS OF THE JUDICIAL COMPONENT OF THE CS
67.- …It will be formed according to criteria of equal participation by men and women and respect for ethnic and cultural diversity, and members will be elected through a selection process that reassures Colombian society and its different sectors.
The Unit will have a special investigation team for cases of sexual violence. Special provisions on handling evidence will be established for acts of sexual violence, as given in the Rome Statute.

Pages 182-183, 5.1.2. Justice.
SPECIAL JURISDICTION FOR PEACE
LIST OF SANCTIONS.
There are three types of sanction:
I.- Sanctions applicable to persons who acknowledge exhaustive, complete and detailed truth before the Judicial Panel for Acknowledgement of Truth and Responsibility:
… Sanctions relating to harm or injury caused to minors, women…

Page 192, 5.1.3.4.1. Emotional recovery measures at individual level
In order to address and help to alleviate the suffering of victims in the context of the end of the conflict, the National Government and the FARC-EP have agreed that in developing this agreement the National Government will undertake to broaden the public coverage and regional scope and improve the quality of psychosocial care to ensure the emotional recovery of victims in accordance with the specific harm or injury they have suffered, including the particular impact of sexual violence.

Page 198, 5.1.4. Guarantees of non-recurrence
Secondly, by means of the recognition of what has occurred in the context of the conflict and of the clarification and rejection of the serious violations of human rights and serious breaches of international humanitarian law, including those that have been historically less visible such as those committed against women.

Pages 200-201, 5.2. Commitment to the promotion, respect and guarantee of human rights
The end of the conflict constitutes the best opportunity to realise the rights of the victims … including those of women…

Chapter 6
Pages 204-205, 6. Implementation, verification and public endorsement, General principles for implementation
• Gender-based approach…

Page 207, 6.1. Implementation and verification mechanisms

d. In order to assist with monitoring the approach and guaranteeing the rights of women in the implementation of the Final Agreement, a special forum (Instancia Especial) shall be set up comprising representatives from 6 national and regional Colombian women’s organisations, to maintain a permanent dialogue with the Commission for Monitoring, Promoting and Verifying the Implementation of the Final Agreement (CMPVI). Its composition and functioning shall be defined in consultation with the women’s organisations and in the context of the CMPVI.

Page 208, 6.1.1. Framework Plan for Implementation of the Agreements
… The Framework Plan will include as a priority the practical and strategic needs of women, identifying the multiple discriminations that must be addressed for the execution of the agreements. Furthermore, in respect of the implementation of the agreements, it will drive forward public policies, programmes and reforms that take into account the particular requirements of women … including impact indicators that make it possible to identify the progress of implementation in that regard.

Page 217, 6.2.3. Safeguards and guarantees
A cross-cutting approach will be incorporated, encompassing ethnicity, gender, women, family and generation.
Pages 220-221, 6.2.3. Safeguards and guarantees
e. In relation to victims of the conflict: “Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence”


An educational and communication strategy will be agreed for the dissemination of the principles of non-racial and ethnic discrimination against women…

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 34, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, preamble
Taking account of the fact that women face greater social and institutional barriers in terms of political participation, as a result of deep-rooted discrimination and inequality, as well as structural conditions of exclusion and subordination, there will be significant challenges in guaranteeing their right to participation, and facing up to and transforming these historical conditions will involve developing affirmative measures that will safeguard women's participation in the various areas of political and social representation. To that end, the situation and condition of women in all contexts and in all special aspects will have to be acknowledged.

Page 34, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, preamble
The review and modernisation of the electoral organisation and system must make provision for greater participation by citizens in the electoral process. Greater electoral participation additionally requires inclusive measures that will facilitate the exercising of this right, especially in outlying zones or zones affected by the conflict and neglect, taking account of the specific difficulties of women living in these zones in exercising this right.

Page 35, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, preamble
In consolidating citizen participation on the part of women, their social agendas have to be appreciated and their contribution to public life as political subjects has to be recognised, especially in the area of the promotion and defence of their rights.

Page 35, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, preamble
The promotion not only of political pluralism but also social movements and organisations, particularly of women, young people and other sectors excluded from the exercise of politics and, in general, the democratic debate, requires new forums for dissemination in order that parties, organisations and communities involved in peacebuilding can gain access to space on national, regional and local channels and broadcasters.

Page 38, 2.1.2.1. Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics
The System will include the following elements:
a. Appropriate regulations and institutions:
• Creation of a high-level unit:
o This unit will be accountable to the Office of the President of the Republic and will establish mechanisms for ongoing dialogue with political movements and parties, especially those in opposition, and the new movement arising from the transition of the FARC-EP to legal political activity. The mechanisms will include, inter alia, a system of planning, information and monitoring, and a follow-up and evaluation commission (see sub-paragraph d). The unit will promote effective dialogue with women.
c. Protection:
The Government will have the necessary resources to protect the integrity of leaders, men and women, taking part in political activity, with particular attention to their specific needs.


Page 40, 2.1.2.1. Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics
The System will include the following elements:
d. Evaluation and follow-up:
• A planning, information and monitoring system, which will be inter-institutional in nature and include representation of political movements and parties, will be set up and will make it possible to evaluate performance and results and at the same time to adapt strategy and procedures in order to guarantee conditions of security in the exercising of politics. This system will include specific information as to risks and threats concerning the participation and the political, social and community representation of women.

Page 41, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including those concerning direct participation, at various levels and in various subject areas
2.2.1. Guarantees for social organisations and movements

A democratic, organised society is a prerequisite for building a stable and long-lasting peace, in particular within the context of the implementation of this Agreement. Thus, it is important to act in such a manner as to strengthen social movements and organisations and especially to offer guarantees for their involvement and dialogue with the authorities. In addition, on the understanding that a society in which women take an active part is a more democratic society, it is important to strengthen their organisations and to empower them as protagonists within social movements and organisations.

Page 42, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including those concerning direct participation, at various levels and in various subject areas
2.2.1. Guarantees for social organisations and movements
With these aims, the National Government will prepare a bill of guarantees and promotion of citizen participation and other activities that social movements and organisations can enjoy, on the basis of the following guidelines which will be discussed at national level and will include the participation of spokespersons from the most representative social movements and organisations:

• Through legal and technical assistance, support for the creation and consolidation of social movements and organisations. Notwithstanding the principle of equality, support will be given in the form of extraordinary measures to organisations of women, young people and groups historically discriminated against.


Page 42, 2.2. Democratic mechanisms for citizen participation, including those concerning direct participation, at various levels and in various subject areas
2.2.1. Guarantees for social organisations and movements
With these aims, the National Government will prepare a bill of guarantees and promotion of citizen participation and other activities that social movements and organisations can enjoy, on the basis of the following guidelines which will be discussed at national level and will include the participation of spokespersons from the most representative social movements and organisations:

• Citizen participation forums will extend and guarantee, with equal participation between men and women, the representation of social movements and organisations, citizen control and dialogue with local, municipal, departmental and national authorities.


Page 45, 2.2.3. Citizen participation through community, institutional and regional media
The community, institutional and regional media must contribute to citizen participation and especially promote civic values, the acknowledgement of different ethnic and cultural identities, equality of opportunity between men and women, political3 and social inclusion, national integration and, in general, the consolidation of democracy. Citizen participation in community media will further contribute to the building of a democratic culture based on the principles of freedom, dignity and affiliation, and to strengthening communities with links based on good neighbourliness or mutual collaboration.

Pages 46-47, 2.2.4. Guarantees for reconciliation, coexistence, tolerance and non-stigmatisation, especiallyby reason of political and social action within the context of mutual respect
With this aim, the Government will set up a National Council for Reconciliation and Coexistence (Consejo Nacional para la Reconciliación y la Convivencia), which will be composed of representatives from government, the Office of the Inspector General, the Office of the Ombudsman, representatives appointed by political movements and parties, including such movement as may arise from the transition of the FARC-EP to legal political activity, social movements and organisations, particularly those involving women, the rural population, trade associations, ethnic minorities, churches, religious faiths, organisations based on faith and organisations in the religious sector, the education sector, inter alia. The Council will have the function of advising and monitoring the Government in implementing mechanisms and actions, which are to include:

• The promotion of non-stigmatisation of groups in vulnerable circumstances or discriminated against, such as women, ethnic peoples and communities, the LGBTI population, young people, boys and girls and the elderly, disabled persons, political minorities and religious minorities.

• The promotion of reconciliation, coexistence and tolerance, especially in those populations most affected by the conflict, taking account of the disproportionate impact of the conflict on women.

Page 48, 2.2.5. Citizen control and oversight

The citizen control and oversight mechanisms envisaged will include effective participation by women.

Page 50, 2.2.6. Policy for strengthening democratic, participatory planning
The National Government will make the necessary adjustments as these emerge from the review process at all levels of the participatory system in planning processes.
d. Consolidation of institutional designs and methodology with the aim of facilitating citizen participation and ensuring the effectiveness thereof in terms of the formulation of public social policies such as in the areas of health, education, combating poverty and inequality, the environment and culture. To that end, the National Government, in collaboration with the relevant sectors, will review the sector-based participatory processes and forums and will issue instructions to the respective institutions for the latter to adapt their regulations, organisation and method of operation. The National Government will adopt measures to facilitate the effective participation of women in this scenario, including measures to make it possible to overcome obstacles concerning women's carer and reproductive roles.
e. Consolidation and promotion of the preparation of participatory budgets that take account of gender and women's rights at local level, with the following aims:
• To promote involvement on the part of men and women in prioritising a portion of the investment budget in such a manner as to reflect the conclusions arising from the participatory planning exercises.
• To provide incentives for the formulation and implementation of participatory budgets.
• To promote mechanisms for monitoring and accountability in connection with the participatory budget exercises.


Page 52, 2.3.2. Promotion of electoral participation
With a view to promoting greater electoral participation, the National Government, together with the competent authorities, will promote the following measures:
• Promotion of information, training, teaching and dissemination campaigns to stimulate electoral participation at national and regional level, with special emphasis on the promotion of greater involvement on the part of women, vulnerable populations and territories especially affected by the conflict and neglect.
• Implementation of a nationwide mass ID-issuance campaign, prioritising marginalised and rural zones, particularly those most affected by the conflict and neglect, and providing measures to facilitate access to this campaign by rural women.

Page 54, 2.3.5. Promotion of a democratic and participatory political culture

To promote a democratic, participatory culture, the National Government will implement the following measures:
• Promotion of democratic values, political participation and the mechanisms thereof, to guarantee and enhance knowledge of them and their effective use, thereby consolidating the exercising of the rights enshrined in the Constitution, doing so by means of media campaigns and training workshops. Special emphasis will be placed on the most vulnerable populations such as rural communities, women, religious minorities, ethnic peoples and communities and LGBTI groups. The content of these campaigns will incorporate values to challenge multiple forms of discrimination.

• A programme to promote political participation and leadership by women.

Page 55, 2.3.6. Promotion of the political representation of populations and zones particularly affectedby the conflict and neglect

In any event, candidates must be people who regularly live in said territories or have been displaced from them and are in the process of returning. Candidates may be registered by significant groups of citizens or organisations in an electoral district, such as rural organisations, organisations of victims (including displaced people), and organisations of women and social sectors working to build the peace and to improve social conditions in a region, inter alia. The National Government will launch processes to strengthen social organisations in these territories, in particular victims' organisations with a view to promoting their participation in the electoral district.

Page 55, 2.3.7. Promotion of women's political and citizen participation within the context of this Agreement
The National Government and the FARC-EP acknowledge the important role played by women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts and in the consolidation of peace, and also the need to promote and to strengthen women's political and citizen participation even more within the context of the end of the conflict. Their leadership and participation on an equal footing are necessary and essential in terms of public decision-making processes and the formulation, implementation, evaluation and monitoring of government policies aimed at achieving a stable and long-lasting peace.

Page 55, 2.3.7. Promotion of women's political and citizen participation within the context of this Agreement
The National Government and the FARC-EP reject any form of discrimination against women and reaffirm that their contribution as political subjects in public life is vital for strengthening democracy and for maintaining and fomenting the peace. In implementing all that which is agreed in Chapter 2 of this Agreement, the gender-based approach will be guaranteed and the necessary affirmative measures will be designed and adopted to strengthen women's participation and leadership and, in general, to promote fulfilment of the aforesaid proposals.
The strengthening of women's political and citizen participation on an equal footing includes the adoption of measures that will guarantee balanced representation of men and women in shaping all the forums referred to herein. Likewise, balanced participation and leadership by women within social movements and organisations and political parties must be promoted. With the aim of raising awareness of women's rights and promoting new leadership roles for them, training programmes are to be implemented concerning their political rights and forms of political and citizen participation.
The aforesaid has no bearing on the duty to step up compliance with international undertakings and regulations and also national regulations in this area.

Page 56, 2.3.8. Creation of a new space for providing media access to political movements and parties
To supplement that which is agreed within the context of sections 2.2 and 2.3 concerning media access for social movements and organisations and political movements and parties, respectively, the Government undertakes to provide a closed institutional TV channel designed for political movements and parties with legal status for the purposes of the dissemination of their political platforms within the context of respect for ideas and difference. This channel will also be a way in which to provide information on the work of victims’ organisations, social movements and organisations, to promote a democratic culture of peace and reconciliation and of non-discriminatory values with respect for the right of women to a life free of violence, and also to publicise progress made in terms of implementing the plans and programmes agreed with the context of this Agreement.
Citizenship
Page 12, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Equality and a gender-based approach: acknowledgement of women as independent citizens with rights, who, irrespective of their marital status, or relationship to their family or community, have access, on an equal footing to men, to ownership of land and production projects, funding options, infrastructure, technical services and training, inter alia; attention is to be given to the social and institutional conditions that have prevented women from gaining access to the assets of production and to public and social benefits. Such recognition requires the adoption of specific measures in terms of planning, implementation and monitoring of the plans and programmes covered in this agreement so that these can be implemented whilst taking account of the specific needs and distinct conditions of women, in accordance with their lifecycle, painful experiences and needs.

Page 45, 2.2.3. Citizen participation through community, institutional and regional media
In addition, in an end-of-conflict scenario, the community, institutional and regional media will play a part in the development and promotion of a culture of participation, equality and nondiscrimination, peaceful coexistence, peace with social justice, and reconciliation, its content
incorporating non-discriminatory values and respect for the rights of women to a life free from violence.

Page 52, 2.3.2. Promotion of electoral participation
With a view to promoting greater electoral participation, the National Government, together with the competent authorities, will promote the following measures:
• Implementation of a nationwide mass ID-issuance campaign, prioritising marginalised and rural zones, particularly those most affected by the conflict and neglect, and providing measures to facilitate access to this campaign by rural women.
Other
Summary: this category includes references to both women and women's organisation in areas and forums not covered under 'general quotas', 'effective participation and citizenship'

Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform

The effectiveness, transparency and proper development of the CRR are largely dependent on the promotion of broad participation on the part of communities through the generation of participatory and democratic institutional forums where said communities have the capacity for change and to affect the planning, implementation and monitoring of the various plans and programmes agreed upon. Participation is also a guarantee of the greater inclusion of rural communities – women and men – in the political, economic, social and cultural life of their regions and thus of the nation.

Page 17,
1.1.5. Large-scale titling of small and medium-sized rural property:

The participation of women and women’s organisations in the various spaces created for conciliation and the resolution of conflicts concerning land use and possession will be promoted.

Page 18, 1.1.8. Certain mechanisms to resolve conflicts concerning possession and use of land and the strengthening of food production: with a view to contributing to land tenure regularisation and the protection of property rights, promoting appropriate use of land, improving land planning and management, preventing and mitigating conflicts concerning use and possession, and, in particular, to resolving conflicts that jeopardise or limit food production, the National Government will:
• Set up flexible, efficient mechanisms for conciliation and conflict resolution concerning land use and possession, aimed at guaranteeing effective protection of rural property rights; resolving conflicts concerning rights of land possession and use; and, in general, promoting the regularisation of rural property, including traditional mechanisms and participative intervention by communities in conflict resolution. Furthermore, the National Government will, to the same end, set in motion a new rural land legal system that will enjoy appropriate coverage and capacity across Colombia, with emphasis on prioritised areas, and with mechanisms that guarantee access to justice that is expedite and timely to the rural poor, with legal advice and special training for women regarding their rights and access to justice, together with specific measures for overcoming barriers that constitute obstacles to the recognition and protection of women’s rights over land. The participation of women and women’s organisations in the various spaces created for conciliation and the resolution of conflicts concerning land use and possession will be promoted.

Page 22, 1.2. Development Programmes with a Territorial-Based Focus (DPTFs)
1.2.1. Objective: the objective of the DPTFs is to achieve the structural transformation of the countryside and the rural environment and to promote an equitable relationship between rural and urban areas, with a view to guaranteeing:
• The recognition and promotion of community organisations, including organisations of rural women, enabling them to become protagonists in the structural transformation of the countryside;

Page 111, 4.1.2. Aims
The National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes will be implemented within the framework and as a part of the Comprehensive Rural Reform (CRR) and must achieve the following aims:

• Strengthening the participation and capabilities of small-scale farmer’s organisations, including rural women’s organisations, to provide support (technical, financial, human support, inter alia) for their projects.
• Involving women as active subjects in the agreement processes in relation to voluntary substitution, recognising their active role in the processes of rural development.

Page 116, 4.1.3.5. Participative construction and development of the comprehensive community-based and municipal plans for the substitution of illicit crops and alternative agrarian development (Planes integrales comunitarios y municipales de sustitución y desarrollo alternativo, CPSAD):
• Community assemblies:

The community assemblies form the basis of the participative planning scheme. This begins with the drafting of a proposal containing a comprehensive vision for the territory and identifying the needs, opportunities and priorities, within the framework of the NCPS and in accordance with the content thereof. The community assemblies will incorporate all the communities in the area affected, including the producers of crops used for illicit purposes, and will ensure the effective participation of women in these spaces.

Page 118, 4.1.3.5. Participative construction and development of the comprehensive community-based and municipal plans for the substitution of illicit crops and alternative agrarian development (Planes integrales comunitarios y municipales de sustitución y desarrollo alternativo, CPSAD):

• Comprehensive community-based and municipal plans for substitution of illicit crops and alternative agrarian development

For the implementation of the substitution plans, preference shall be given to contracting community organisations and the creation of jobs in the areas related to the NCPS shall be promoted, for which purpose social and community organisations and cooperatives, also including rural women’s organisations, shall be strengthened and solidarity-based associative practices and technical training shall be promoted.
Equality
Equality (general)
Summary: throughout the agreement there are multiple references to men and women, stating the need for an equal approach across the various issues addressed in the agreement. Examples include:

Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
This structural transformation also requires the promotion of equality between men and women through the adoption of specific measures to guarantee that men and women are involved in and benefit from implementation of this Agreement on an equal basis.

Page 34, 2. Political participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace, preamble
Taking account of the fact that women face greater social and institutional barriers in terms of political participation, as a result of deep-rooted discrimination and inequality, as well as structural conditions of exclusion and subordination, there will be significant challenges in guaranteeing their right to participation, and facing up to and transforming these historical conditions will involve developing affirmative measures that will safeguard women's participation in the various areas of political and social representation. To that end, the situation and condition of women in all contexts and in all special aspects will have to be acknowledged.

Page 45, 2.2.3. Citizen participation through community, institutional and regional media
In addition, in an end-of-conflict scenario, the community, institutional and regional media will play a part in the development and promotion of a culture of participation, equality and nondiscrimination, peaceful coexistence, peace with social justice, and reconciliation, its content incorporating non-discriminatory values and respect for the rights of women to a life free from violence.

Pages 46-47, 2.2.4. Guarantees for reconciliation, coexistence, tolerance and non-stigmatisation, especiallyby reason of political and social action within the context of mutual respect
• The promotion of non-stigmatisation of groups in vulnerable circumstances or discriminated against, such as women, ethnic peoples and communities, the LGBTI population, young people, boys and girls and the elderly, disabled persons, political minorities and religious minorities.

Page 55, 2.3.7. Promotion of women's political and citizen participation within the context of this Agreement
The National Government and the FARC-EP reject any form of discrimination against women and reaffirm that their contribution as political subjects in public life is vital for strengthening democracy and for maintaining and fomenting the peace. In implementing all that which is agreed in Chapter 2 of this Agreement, the gender-based approach will be guaranteed and the necessary affirmative measures will be designed and adopted to strengthen women's participation and leadership and, in general, to promote fulfilment of the aforesaid proposals.

The strengthening of women's political and citizen participation on an equal footing includes the adoption of measures that will guarantee balanced representation of men and women in shaping all the forums referred to herein. Likewise, balanced participation and leadership by women within social movements and organisations and political parties must be promoted. With the aim of raising awareness of women's rights and promoting new leadership roles for them, training programmes are to be implemented concerning their political rights and forms of political and citizen participation.

Page 104, 4. 4. Solution to the Illicit Drugs Problem, Preamble

That all the foregoing has contributed to undermining values and peaceful coexistence and has constituted a factor that harms the possibility of progressing towards social inclusion, equality of opportunity between men and women and the expansion of democracy.

Page 136, 5.1. Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence
The Comprehensive System has an equity-based and gender-based approach, which adapts and responds to the particular characteristics of the victimisation in each territory and each population, and in particular to the needs of women and children.

Page 140, 5.1.1. Truth: Truth, Coexistence and Non-Recurrence Commission and Special Unit for the Search for Persons deemed as Missing in the context of and due to the conflict
5.1.1.1. Truth, Coexistence and Non-Recurrence Commission (Comisión para el Esclarecimiento de la la Verdad, la Convivencia y la No Repetición)

Throughout its work the Commission will take an appropriate approach to learn about the different ways in which the conflict affected women, children, adolescents, youths and the elderly, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, rural communities, persons on the basis of their religion, their opinions or their beliefs, the Afro-Colombian, black, palenquero and raizal communities, the Roma community, the LGBTI community, displaced and exiled persons, human rights advocates, trade unionists, journalists, farmers, ranchers, traders and businessmen and - women, inter alia. This should also help to raise awareness in Colombian society of the specific ways in which the conflict reproduced historical mechanisms of discrimination, as a fundamental first step towards a more just and inclusive society.

Page 142, 5.1.1.1.1. Guiding criteria:
Equity-based and gender-based approach: In carrying out its mandate and functions, the Commission will take into account the different experiences, different impacts and individual conditions of people, populations and sectors being discriminated against or that are vulnerable or particularly affected by the conflict, inter alia. Special attention will be afforded to victimisation suffered by women.

Page 204, 6. Implementation, verification and public endorsement
General principles for implementation
• Gender-based approach: In this Agreement, the approach to gender means recognition of equal rights for men and women and the special circumstances of each person, especially those of women, regardless of their marital status, life cycle and family and community relationships, as enjoying rights and special constitutional protection. In particular, it implies the need to guarantee affirmative measures to promote that equality, active participation by women and their organisations in peacebuilding and recognition of the victimisation of women as a result of the conflict.

Page 204, 6. Implementation, verification and public endorsement
General principles for implementation

To guarantee true equality, it is necessary to put forward affirmative measures which respond to the disproportionate impact which the armed confict has had on women, in particular sexual violence. With regard to the rights of victims, their protection includes differential treatment which recognises the causes and the disproportionate effects which the armed confict has had on women. Moreover, differential action must be taken to enable women to access the plans and programmes contained in this Agreement on equal terms. Participation by women and their organisations and the equitable representation of women in the different areas of participation must be guaranteed. The gender-based approach must be understood and applied in a cross-cutting manner in implementing the whole of the Agreement.

Page 221, 6.2.3. Safeguards and guarantees Substantial safeguards for the interpretation and implementation of the Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace in Colombia.
e. In relation to victims of the conflict: “Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence”
• A special harmonisation programme will be drawn up in collaboration with the representative organisations of the ethnic peoples, for the reincorporation of demobilised individuals belonging to such peoples, who opt to return to their communities, in order to guarantee the restoration of territorial harmony. An educational and communication strategy will be agreed for the dissemination of the principles of non-racial and ethnic discrimination against women, youngsters and girls demobilised from the conflict.
Social equality
Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Men and women in the small-scale farmer, indigenous, black, Afro-descendent, raizal and palenquero communities, and other ethnic communities across Colombia’s territories are contributing to the structural transformation of the countryside and in particular to the closing of the agricultural frontier, in favour of a sustainable socio-environmental planning. To that end, it is necessary to recognise and to support the Peasant Enterprise Zones (Zonas de Reserva Campesina) and cooperative groups within society.

Page 12, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Equality and a gender-based approach: acknowledgement of women as independent citizens with rights, who, irrespective of their marital status, or relationship to their family or community, have access, on an equal footing to men, to ownership of land and production projects, funding options, infrastructure, technical services and training, inter alia; attention is to be given to the social and institutional conditions that have prevented women from gaining access to the assets of production and to public and social benefits. Such recognition requires the adoption of specific measures in terms of planning, implementation and monitoring of the plans and programmes covered in this agreement so that these can be implemented whilst taking account of the specific needs and distinct conditions of women, in accordance with their lifecycle, painful experiences and needs.

Page 13, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Prioritisation: the comprehensive agrarian development policy is universal and its implementation prioritises the most deprived and vulnerable populations and territories, and the communities most affected by poverty, neglect and the conflict; it focuses on small and medium-sized producers, men and women alike. The rights of the victims of the conflict, of boys and girls, women and the elderly, deserve special attention.

Page 14, 1.1.1. Comprehensive Rural Reform Land Fund
With a view to achieving the democratisation of access to land, to the benefit of small-scale farmer communities and especially rural women without land or with insufficient land and the rural communities most affected by poverty, neglect and the conflict, regularising property ownership rights and as a result reversing concentration and promoting fair distribution of land, the National Government is to create a Land Fund for the free distribution of land…

Page 15, 1.1.2. Other mechanisms for promoting access to land: supplementary to the aforesaid mechanisms, the National Government undertakes the following:

• Special purchase credit: the National Government will arrange for the opening of a new longterm, subsidised, special credit line for the purchase of land by the beneficiary population, with special measures for rural women (see 1.1.3.).

Page 24, 1.3. National plans for Comprehensive Rural Reform
Poverty is overcome not simply by improving families’ income, but by ensuring that boys and girls, men and women have adequate access to public goods and services. This is the basis of a decent life. Thus, overcoming poverty in the countryside depends, first and foremost, on the joint action of the national plans for Comprehensive Rural Reform, which over a fifteen-year transition phase will eradicate extreme poverty, reduce rural poverty in all its dimensions by 50%, reduce inequality and create a trend towards the convergence, at a higher level, of the quality of life in towns and cities and in the countryside. In any case, the framework plan must guarantee that the utmost efforts are made to fulfil the National Plans in the next 5 years. In order to overcome poverty, specific, differentiated measures will be implemented to address the special needs of women in the countryside and achieve effective equality of opportunity between men and women.

Page 28, 1.3.3. Stimuli for agricultural production and the solidarity and cooperative economy. Technical assistance. Subsidies. Credit. Income generation. Marketing. Formalisation of the labour market. 1.3.3.1. Stimuli for a solidarity and cooperative economy: with the aim of stimulating different associative forms of work for and between small and medium-sized producers, based on solidarity and cooperation, which promote economic independence and organisational ability, especially in rural women, and which strengthen the ability of small producers in terms of access to goods and services, marketing their goods and, in general, improving their living, working and production conditions, the National Government will set up and implement the National Plan to Foment the Rural Solidarity and Cooperative Economy (Plan nacional de fomento a la economía solidaria y cooperativa rural).
• Mentoring, technical and financial support for rural communities — men and women — in the creation and consolidation of cooperatives, solidarity and community associations and organisations, especially those connected with food production and supply and in particular organic and agro-ecological production and women's organisations.

Page 29, 1.3.3.3. Subsidies, income generation and credit: in addition to the subsidies that the National Government will grant to the rural, family-run and community-based economies through the plans and programmes relating to land distribution, technical assistance, housing, infrastructure and, in general, all social goods and services falling under the heading of comprehensive access, the National Government will design and implement a Plan for Supporting and Consolidating Income Generation in the Rural, Family-run and Community-based Economies and Medium-sized Producers with Lower Income Levels (Plan para apoyar y consolidar la generación de ingresos de la economía campesina, familiar y comunitaria, y de los medianos productores y productoras con menores ingresos). In addition, this Plan must enable women to overcome barriers to accessing funding. Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:

Page 30, 1.3.3.4. Marketing: with the aim of guaranteeing suitable conditions for marketing goods arising from the production of the rural, family-run and community-based economies and improving their availability as a guarantee of the right to nutrition, the National Government will set up and implement the National Plan for the Promotion of Marketing the Products of the Rural, Familyrun and Community-based Economies (Plan nacional para la promoción de la comercialización de la producción de la economía campesina, familiar y comunitaria), which will have affirmative measures to promote the economic empowerment of rural women. Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:
• The promotion of solidarity associations, including associations of rural women, for the purposes of marketing, which will provide information and logistics, administer storage centres and promote the produce of the countryside, with special attention being given to prioritised areas, to progressively minimise intermediation, reduce the final price charged to the consumer, encourage direct relationships between producers and consumers and create conditions for guaranteeing higher incomes for producers.
• Financing or co-financing of storage centres for the food production of the rural, family-run and community-based economies, which address the particular features and needs of a region, and encourage organised communities to administer the storage centres.
• In urban centres, promoting markets for the produce of the rural, family-run and communitybased economies.
• Promoting links between small-scale rural production and other production models, which may be vertical or horizontal, and on different scales, improving country/town integration, for the benefit of the various communities — men and women — and to add value to produce.
• The design and progressive implementation of a public procurement mechanism to meet the demand from institutional bodies and programmes which, in decentralised fashion, will promote local production in order to support the sales and market penetration of the produce of the rural, family-run and community-based economies.
• For producers, implementing a system of regional price information supported by information and communications technologies.

Page 31, 1.3.3.5. Formalisation of the rural labour market and social protection: the National Government will do its utmost to strengthen the social security and protection system for the rural population, with an equity-based approach and taking into account the particular situation of women. In light of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) regulations, to which Colombia is party, and with a view to safeguarding decent employment and the rights of workers in the countryside, and their social protection (protection in old age, maternity benefits, occupational risks), the National Government will set up and implement the Progressive Plan for Social Protection and Safeguarding of the Rights of Rural Workers (Plan progresivo de protección social y de garantía de derechos de los trabajadores y trabajadoras rurales).
The aim of the plan will be to provide decent rural working conditions through the full application, with workplace inspection, of the regulations governing contractual relationships, the corresponding working day, remuneration and contract regulation, taking account of case-law developments favourable to workers, and the applicable international standards of the ILO, relating to labour in general and rural labour in particular, to enable the effective safeguarding, for men and women on an equal basis, of the fundamental right to employment. Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:
..
• Promoting the recruitment of women in non-traditional areas of production.


Page 50, 2.2.6. Policy for strengthening democratic, participatory planning
The National Government will make the necessary adjustments as these emerge from the review process at all levels of the participatory system in planning processes.
d. Consolidation of institutional designs and methodology with the aim of facilitating citizen participation and ensuring the effectiveness thereof in terms of the formulation of public social policies such as in the areas of health, education, combating poverty and inequality, the environment and culture. To that end, the National Government, in collaboration with the relevant sectors, will review the sector-based participatory processes and forums and will issue instructions to the respective institutions for the latter to adapt their regulations, organisation and method of operation. The National Government will adopt measures to facilitate the effective participation of women in this scenario, including measures to make it possible to overcome obstacles concerning women's carer and reproductive roles.
e. Consolidation and promotion of the preparation of participatory budgets that take account of gender and women's rights at local level, with the following aims:
• To promote involvement on the part of men and women in prioritising a portion of the investment budget in such a manner as to reflect the conclusions arising from the participatory planning exercises.
• To provide incentives for the formulation and implementation of participatory budgets.
• To promote mechanisms for monitoring and accountability in connection with the participatory budget exercises.

Page 120, 4.1.3.6. Components of the comprehensive plans for the substitution of crops:

• For the community in general: o Early childhood: in order to facilitate access to employment opportunities for women who are heads of households and to contribute to food security in early childhood, a programme of rural nurseries will be developed in the villages affected by crops used for illicit purposes.

•Job opportunities: mechanisms will be put in place to provide information to facilitate access to job opportunities arising as a result of the CRR and in particular the comprehensive plans for the substitution of crops and alternative agrarian development, which will enable communities living in territories affected by crops used for illicit purposes to identify and access the available job market, with the inclusion of special measures for rural women
Particular groups of women
Indigenous/nomadic women
Page 10, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform


A genuine structural transformation of the countryside requires the adoption of measures to promote appropriate use of the land in accordance with its suitable purposes and to stimulate the titling, restitution and equitable distribution thereof, by guaranteeing progressive access to rural property to those who live in the countryside, and, in particular, to rural women and to the most vulnerable communities, and by legalising and democratising property and promoting broader ownership of land, so that it fulfils its social function.

Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
A genuine structural transformation of the countryside requires the adoption of measures to promote appropriate use of the land in accordance with its suitable purposes and to stimulate the titling, restitution and equitable distribution thereof, by guaranteeing progressive access to rural property to those who live in the countryside, and, in particular, to rural women and to the most vulnerable communities, and by legalising and democratising property and promoting broader ownership of land, so that it fulfils its social function.
Refugee/displaced women
Page 3, Introduction

The conclusion of hostilities will first and foremost represent the end of the enormous suffering that the conflict has caused. Millions of Colombians, men and women alike, have been victims of forced displacement…
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform

The CRR recognises the productive and reproductive role of women and thus their fundamental contribution to rural development and the rural economy, and it will make every endeavour on their behalf and on that of the most vulnerable in society to guarantee conditions of well-being and dignity and to consolidate organisational and production methods.
In the area of food and nutrition, the CRR aims to ensure that the entire rural and urban population in Colombia has sufficient access to and availability of the foodstuffs they need for proper nutrition, in terms of opportunity, quantity, quality and price, especially in the case of boys and girls, pregnant or breast-feeding women, and the elderly, prioritising the production of food and the generation of income.

Page 31, 1.3.3.5. Formalisation of the rural labour market and social protection:

• Promoting schemes for protection during pregnancy, childbirth, breast-feeding and health services for newborns, by progressively extending the coverage and enhancing the quality of family health and subsidy systems, with particular focus on rural working women.

Page 33, 1.3.4. System for the progressive realisation of the right to food
• The development of programmes to combat hunger and malnutrition, with national coverage, especially for the destitute rural population, pregnant and breast-feeding women, girls and boys and the elderly. These programmes will include emergency plans for the most vulnerable rural population and those in extreme poverty.
Other
Summary: the agreement (particularly chapter 1) includes multiple references to rural women. These provisions are coded here.

Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform

Men and women in the small-scale farmer, indigenous, black, Afro-descendent, raizal and palenquero communities, and other ethnic communities across Colombia’s territories are contributing to the structural transformation of the countryside and in particular to the closing of the agricultural frontier, in favour of a sustainable socio-environmental planning. To that end, it is necessary to recognise and to support the Peasant Enterprise Zones (Zonas de Reserva Campesina) and cooperative groups within society.

Page 14, 1.1.1. Comprehensive Rural Reform Land Fund
With a view to achieving the democratisation of access to land, to the benefit of small-scale farmer communities and especially rural women without land or with insufficient land and the rural communities most affected by poverty, neglect and the conflict, regularising property ownership rights and as a result reversing concentration and promoting fair distribution of land, the National Government is to create a Land Fund for the free distribution of land…

Page 15, 1.1.2. Other mechanisms for promoting access to land: supplementary to the aforesaid mechanisms, the National Government undertakes the following:

• Special purchase credit: the National Government will arrange for the opening of a new longterm, subsidised, special credit line for the purchase of land by the beneficiary population, with special measures for rural women (see 1.1.3.).

Page 22, 1.2. Development Programmes with a Territorial-Based Focus (DPTFs)
1.2.1. Objective: the objective of the DPTFs is to achieve the structural transformation of the countryside and the rural environment and to promote an equitable relationship between rural and urban areas, with a view to guaranteeing:
• The recognition and promotion of community organisations, including organisations of rural women, enabling them to become protagonists in the structural transformation of the countryside;

Page 27, 1.3.2.2. Rural education:

• A progressive increase in technical, technological and university quotas in rural zones, with fair access for both men and women, including persons with a disability. Special measures will be implemented to incentivise access on the part of rural women and to encourage them to continue.

Page 111, 4.1.2. Aims
The National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes will be implemented within the framework and as a part of the Comprehensive Rural Reform (CRR) and must achieve the following aims:

• Strengthening the participation and capabilities of small-scale farmer’s organisations, including rural women’s organisations, to provide support (technical, financial, human support, inter alia) for their projects.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 31, 1.3.3.5. Formalisation of the rural labour market and social protection: the National Government will do its utmost to strengthen the social security and protection system for the rural population, with an equity-based approach and taking into account the particular situation of women. In light of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) regulations, to which Colombia is party, and with a view to safeguarding decent employment and the rights of workers in the countryside, and their social protection (protection in old age, maternity benefits, occupational risks), the National Government will set up and implement the Progressive Plan for Social Protection and Safeguarding of the Rights of Rural Workers (Plan progresivo de protección social y de garantía de derechos de los trabajadores y trabajadoras rurales).

The aim of the plan will be to provide decent rural working conditions through the full application, with workplace inspection, of the regulations governing contractual relationships, the corresponding working day, remuneration and contract regulation, taking account of case-law developments favourable to workers, and the applicable international standards of the ILO, relating to labour in general and rural labour in particular, to enable the effective safeguarding, for men and women on an equal basis, of the fundamental right to employment. Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:
..
• Promoting the recruitment of women in non-traditional areas of production.
Page 31, 1.3.3.5. Formalisation of the rural labour market and social protection:

Page 218, 6.2.2. Principles
In interpreting and implementing all the components of the Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace in Colombia with an ethnic-based approach, account is taken of the principles enshrined in legislation at the international and constitutional levels, case law and legal regulations, especially the principle of non-regression, recognised in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as the principles and rights recognised in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women – CEDAW (ratified by Colombia on 19 January 1982), International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination - CERD, Durban Declaration and Programme of Action, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and ILO Convention 169 concerning the Rights of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples.

Page 218, 6.2.3. Safeguards and guarantees
Substantial safeguards for the interpretation and implementation of the Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace in Colombia. The principal and non-subsidiary nature of free and informed prior consultation and the right to cultural objection as a guarantee of non-recurrence will be respected, whenever appropriate. Consequently, the phase of implementation of the agreements, as far as ethnic peoples are concerned, should be carried out in guaranteeing the right to prior free and informed consultation respecting constitutional and international standards. A cross-cutting approach will be incorporated, encompassing ethnicity, gender, women, family and generation.
Other
Page 1, Preamble
Emphasising that the new Final Agreement places special emphasis on the fundamental rights of women, of vulnerable social groups such as indigenous peoples, girls, boys and adolescents,

Page 22, 1.2. Development Programmes with a Territorial-Based Focus (DPTFs)
1.2.1. Objective: the objective of the DPTFs is to achieve the structural transformation of the countryside and the rural environment and to promote an equitable relationship between rural and urban areas, with a view to guaranteeing:
• Well-being and quality of life for people living in rural areas — boys and girls, men and women — by enabling them to exercise their political, economic, social and cultural rights and reversing the effects of poverty and conflict;
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 104, 4. 4. Solution to the Illicit Drugs Problem, Preamble

That these phenomena have a severe influence on specific forms of violence that particularly affect women, victims of human trafficking, sexual exploitation and violence resulting from the use of illicit drugs, among others, which requires the training of women in the planning and monitoring of action to combat this kind of violence.

Page 124, 4.2.1.1. Principles:

• Equity-based and gender-based approach: against a background of respect for human rights, to ensure the actions to tackle drug use implemented actually meet the needs of users and are effective and sustainable, it is necessary to identify vulnerability factors associated with age, gender, disability status, socioeconomic status and geographical location or membership of the LGBTI population, etc. Such actions should pay particular attention to the needs of adolescents in rural and urban areas. This approach should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. Measures will be provided for women, and adolescent and young girls.

Page 126, 4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial-based and population-focused approach:
These plans shall contain at least:

• Evidence-based actions to reduce harm, aimed at minimising the negative impact of drug use on the user him/herself, on the family and on the community, giving priority to more vulnerable groups such as the homeless, women, and the prison population. In the case of female users, actions should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. For the female prison population, special measures will be taken in terms of health, protection and prevention, including measures to prevent HIV/AIDS.

Page 204, 6. Implementation, verification and public endorsement
General principles for implementation

To guarantee true equality, it is necessary to put forward affirmative measures which respond to the disproportionate impact which the armed confict has had on women, in particular sexual violence. With regard to the rights of victims, their protection includes differential treatment which recognises the causes and the disproportionate effects which the armed confict has had on women. Moreover, differential action must be taken to enable women to access the plans and programmes contained in this Agreement on equal terms. Participation by women and their organisations and the equitable representation of women in the different areas of participation must be guaranteed. The gender-based approach must be understood and applied in a cross-cutting manner in implementing the whole of the Agreement.
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 86, 3.4.4. Special Investigation Unit…
This Special Investigation Unit shall have the following features:

• As an operating basis, this Unit shall take a multidimensional investigative approach which deals with the entire criminal chain of the organisations and conduct that are the subject of its mandate, including criminal conduct affecting women, children and adolescents.

Page 89, 3.4.4. Special Investigation Unit…
Jurisdiction
The Special Unit:
• Shall implement specialised investigation methodological plans in relation to the most serious acts of victimisation undertaken against women, children, adolescents and the LGBTI community by the organisations and conduct that are the subject of this agreement.

Page 91, 3.4.7.1.1. High-Level Unit of the Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics (Instancia de Alto nivel del Sistema Integral de Seguridad para el Ejercicio de la Política)
The High-Level Unit of the Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics (Agreement on Political Participation: section 2.1.2.1) shall develop and implement the following components of the Security System:

• Committee to promote investigations into crimes committed against people in the exercise of politics, taking into account women and the LBGTI community, as set out in section 2.1.2.1. sub-paragraph d. of the Agreement on Political Participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace.

Page 98, 3.4.8. Comprehensive Security and Protection Programme for the Communities and Organisations across the Country’s Territories (Programa Integral de Seguridad y Protección para las Comunidades y Organisaciones en los Territorios)

• Protocol for Protection of Rural Territories: the Ministry of the Interior shall create a special protocol for the protection of rural communities that were affected by the conflict, which shall be concluded with the agreement of the communities and organisations in each territory, including women’s organisations, and in line with the Comprehensive Security and Protection System. Within this protocol, rural communities and their organisations shall draw up their own context for the assessment and definition of risks that takes into account the particular conditions of women.

Page 112, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes

It will be ensured that women are involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the comprehensive plans for the substitution of crops used for illicit purposes and alternative agrarian development, and that women receive training to prevent gender-based violence associated with drugs.

Page 124, 4.2.1.1. Principles:

• Equity-based and gender-based approach: against a background of respect for human rights, to ensure the actions to tackle drug use implemented actually meet the needs of users and are effective and sustainable, it is necessary to identify vulnerability factors associated with age, gender, disability status, socioeconomic status and geographical location or membership of the LGBTI population, etc. Such actions should pay particular attention to the needs of adolescents in rural and urban areas. This approach should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. Measures will be provided for women, and adolescent and young girls.

Page 126, 4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial-based and population-focused approach:
These plans shall contain at least:

• Evidence-based actions to reduce harm, aimed at minimising the negative impact of drug use on the user him/herself, on the family and on the community, giving priority to more vulnerable groups such as the homeless, women, and the prison population. In the case of female users, actions should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. For the female prison population, special measures will be taken in terms of health, protection and prevention, including measures to prevent HIV/AIDS.

Page 127, 4.3. Tackling the production and selling of narcotics:
We dream of a country free from drug trafficking, something which should be a common goal of all people and requires changes at political and institutional level, and in society in general, in order to consolidate a culture based on values against drug trafficking and money laundering that will allow us to eradicate and overcome the impact of this phenomenon, including the stereotypes associated with drug trafficking that lead to violence against women.
Protection (general)
Page 18, 1.1.8. Certain mechanisms to resolve conflicts concerning possession and use of land and the strengthening of food production: with a view to contributing to land tenure regularisation and the protection of property rights, promoting appropriate use of land, improving land planning and management, preventing and mitigating conflicts concerning use and possession, and, in particular, to resolving conflicts that jeopardise or limit food production, the National Government will:
• Set up flexible, efficient mechanisms for conciliation and conflict resolution concerning land use and possession, aimed at guaranteeing effective protection of rural property rights; resolving conflicts concerning rights of land possession and use; and, in general, promoting the regularisation of rural property, including traditional mechanisms and participative intervention by communities in conflict resolution. Furthermore, the National Government will, to the same end, set in motion a new rural land legal system that will enjoy appropriate coverage and capacity across Colombia, with emphasis on prioritised areas, and with mechanisms that guarantee access to justice that is expedite and timely to the rural poor, with legal advice and special training for women regarding their rights and access to justice, together with specific measures for overcoming barriers that constitute obstacles to the recognition and protection of women’s rights over land.

Page 80, 3.4.1. Guiding principles
The Government and the FARC-EP agree the following guiding principles:
• Gender-based approach: special emphasis will be placed on the protection of women, children and adolescents, who have been affected by the criminal organisations that are the subject of this agreement. This approach will take account of the specific risks faced by women against their life, freedom, integrity and safety and will be appropriate for those risks.

Page 80, 3.4.1. Guiding principles
The Government and the FARC-EP agree the following guiding principles:
• Guarantees of Non-Recurrence: the state shall adopt measures for clarifying the paramilitary phenomenon, preventing the repetition thereof and guaranteeing the dismantling of criminal organisations and behaviours responsible for homicides and massacres and systematic violence, particularly against women, or which attack human rights advocates, social movements or political movements or which threaten or attack persons participating in the implementation of the accords and the construction of peace.


Page 83, 3.4.3. National Commission on Security Guarantees…

The Commission shall be formed before the entry into force of the Final Agreement. In forming the Commission, the effective participation of women shall be promoted.

g. It shall plan and draw up strategies, within its jurisdiction, to identify the funding sources and patterns of criminal activity of the organisations and conduct that are the subject of this agreement; among those patterns shall be taken into account those that particularly affect women, children, adolescents and the LGBTI community;
Page 84, 3.4.3. National Commission on Security Guarantees…
The work of the Commission shall focus on the following:
g. It shall plan and draw up strategies, within its jurisdiction, to identify the funding sources and patterns of criminal activity of the organisations and conduct that are the subject of this agreement; among those patterns shall be taken into account those that particularly affect women, children, adolescents and the LGBTI community;

Page 90, 3.4.7. Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics
The Comprehensive System shall develop a new model of guarantees for citizens’ rights and protection for political parties and movements, including the movement that emerges from the transition of the FARC-EP to legal political activity, rural communities and social organisations, women’s organisations and human rights advocates in compliance with what has been agreed in the Agreement on Political Participation.

Page 112, 4.1.3. Description and elements of the National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes

It will be ensured that women are involved in the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the comprehensive plans for the substitution of crops used for illicit purposes and alternative agrarian development, and that women receive training to prevent gender-based violence associated with drugs.

Page 124, 4.2.1.1. Principles:

• Equity-based and gender-based approach: against a background of respect for human rights, to ensure the actions to tackle drug use implemented actually meet the needs of users and are effective and sustainable, it is necessary to identify vulnerability factors associated with age, gender, disability status, socioeconomic status and geographical location or membership of the LGBTI population, etc. Such actions should pay particular attention to the needs of adolescents in rural and urban areas. This approach should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. Measures will be provided for women, and adolescent and young girls.

Page 126, 4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial-based and population-focused approach:
These plans shall contain at least:

• Evidence-based actions to reduce harm, aimed at minimising the negative impact of drug use on the user him/herself, on the family and on the community, giving priority to more vulnerable groups such as the homeless, women, and the prison population. In the case of female users, actions should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. For the female prison population, special measures will be taken in terms of health, protection and prevention, including measures to prevent HIV/AIDS.

Page 127, 4.3. Tackling the production and selling of narcotics:
We dream of a country free from drug trafficking, something which should be a common goal of all people and requires changes at political and institutional level, and in society in general, in order to consolidate a culture based on values against drug trafficking and money laundering that will allow us to eradicate and overcome the impact of this phenomenon, including the stereotypes associated with drug trafficking that lead to violence against women.
Other
Page 13, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Prioritisation: the comprehensive agrarian development policy is universal and its implementation prioritises the most deprived and vulnerable populations and territories, and the communities most affected by poverty, neglect and the conflict; it focuses on small and medium-sized producers, men and women alike. The rights of the victims of the conflict, of boys and girls, women and the elderly, deserve special attention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 86, 3.4.4. Special Investigation Unit…
This Special Investigation Unit shall have the following features:

• As an operating basis, this Unit shall take a multidimensional investigative approach which deals with the entire criminal chain of the organisations and conduct that are the subject of its mandate, including criminal conduct affecting women, children and adolescents.

Page 89, 3.4.4. Special Investigation Unit…
Jurisdiction
The Special Unit:
• Shall implement specialised investigation methodological plans in relation to the most serious acts of victimisation undertaken against women, children, adolescents and the LGBTI community by the organisations and conduct that are the subject of this agreement.

Page 91, 3.4.7.1.1. High-Level Unit of the Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics (Instancia de Alto nivel del Sistema Integral de Seguridad para el Ejercicio de la Política)
The High-Level Unit of the Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics (Agreement on Political Participation: section 2.1.2.1) shall develop and implement the following components of the Security System:

• Committee to promote investigations into crimes committed against people in the exercise of politics, taking into account women and the LBGTI community, as set out in section 2.1.2.1. sub-paragraph d. of the Agreement on Political Participation: A democratic opportunity to build peace.

Page 98, 3.4.8. Comprehensive Security and Protection Programme for the Communities and Organisations across the Country’s Territories (Programa Integral de Seguridad y Protección para las Comunidades y Organisaciones en los Territorios)

• Protocol for Protection of Rural Territories: the Ministry of the Interior shall create a special protocol for the protection of rural communities that were affected by the conflict, which shall be concluded with the agreement of the communities and organisations in each territory, including women’s organisations, and in line with the Comprehensive Security and Protection System. Within this protocol, rural communities and their organisations shall draw up their own context for the assessment and definition of risks that takes into account the particular conditions of women.

Page 112, 4.1.2. Aims
The National Comprehensive Programme for the Substitution of Crops Used for Illicit Purposes will be implemented within the framework and as a part of the Comprehensive Rural Reform (CRR) and must achieve the following aims:
• Promoting and strengthening projects for investigation, reflection and analysis of the reality for women in relation to crops used for illicit purposes, in order to tackle the issue from an equity-based point of view.

Page 136, 5.1. Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence
The Comprehensive System has an equity-based and gender-based approach, which adapts and responds to the particular characteristics of the victimisation in each territory and each population, and in particular to the needs of women and children.

Page 137, 5.1. Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence

a. Goals:
• Territorial-based, equity-based and gender-based approach, through the differentiated treatment of territories and populations, in particular of women and children victims, and of the most deprived and most vulnerable populations and communities, and therefore those most affected by the conflict.

Page 140, 5.1.1. Truth: Truth, Coexistence and Non-Recurrence Commission and Special Unit for the Search for Persons deemed as Missing in the context of and due to the conflict
5.1.1.1. Truth, Coexistence and Non-Recurrence Commission (Comisión para el Esclarecimiento de la la Verdad, la Convivencia y la No Repetición)

Throughout its work the Commission will take an appropriate approach to learn about the different ways in which the conflict affected women, children, adolescents, youths and the elderly, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, rural communities, persons on the basis of their religion, their opinions or their beliefs, the Afro-Colombian, black, palenquero and raizal communities, the Roma community, the LGBTI community, displaced and exiled persons, human rights advocates, trade unionists, journalists, farmers, ranchers, traders and businessmen and - women, inter alia. This should also help to raise awareness in Colombian society of the specific ways in which the conflict reproduced historical mechanisms of discrimination, as a fundamental first step towards a more just and inclusive society.

Page 142, 5.1.1.1.1. Guiding criteria:
Equity-based and gender-based approach: In carrying out its mandate and functions, the Commission will take into account the different experiences, different impacts and individual conditions of people, populations and sectors being discriminated against or that are vulnerable or particularly affected by the conflict, inter alia. Special attention will be afforded to victimisation suffered by women.

Pages 143-144, 5.1.1.1.2. Mandate: The Commission’s mandate will be to elucidate and promote the recognition of:

• The human and social impact of the conflict on society, including its impact on economic, social, cultural and environmental rights, and the different ways in which the conflict affected women, children, adolescents, youths and the elderly, persons on the basis of their religion, opinions or beliefs, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, rural communities, the Afro-Colombian, black, palenquero and raizal communities, the Roma community, the LGBTI community, displaced and exiled persons, human rights advocates, trade unionists, journalists, farmers, ranchers, traders and businessmen and -women, inter alia.


Page 146,
5.1.1.1.4. Duties: In order to fulfil its mandate, the Commission shall have the following main duties: …
• Ensure that the gender-based approach runs through each and every aspect of the Commission, by creating a gender-based task force in charge of specific technical tasks, investigation and holding of hearings, inter alia. This task force will not be the only one addressing this topic, but it shall bear the responsibility for reviewing methodologies in order to ensure that all the Commission’s instruments include this approach, and for liaising with women’s and LGBTI organisations. This shall be achieved without prejudice to the necessary autonomy of the Commission in determining its structure and working methodology.

Page 154, 5.1.2. Justice:
With regard to justice, it has been agreed to establish a Special Jurisdiction for Peace (Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz).
SPECIAL JURISDICTION FOR PEACE I. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE JUDICIAL COMPONENT OF THE COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM FOR TRUTH, JUSTICE, REPARATIONS AND NON-RECURRENCE (CS)

7.- In addition, the consequences of such violations are most serious when they are committed against women or when victims belong to the most vulnerable groups, subjects of special protection, who deserve reparations and special protection, including indigenous peoples, AfroColombian communities and other ethnically distinct groups, religious communities, rural communities, the poorest, the disabled, the displaced and refugees, children, and adolescents, the LGBTI population and the elderly.
8.- The judicial component will function in a way that emphasises the needs of women and child victims, who suffer the disproportionate and differentiated effects of serious breaches and violations committed because of and during the conflict. Reparations must be in line with the United Nations’ call for all peace agreements to adopt a gender focus, recognising reparative and restorative measures, the special suffering of women, and the importance of their active and fair participation in the judicial component of the CS.

66.- Each Judicial Panel will comprise a minimum of six highly qualified Colombian Justices and will need to include experts from different areas of law, with a focus on knowledge of international humanitarian law, human rights or conflict resolution. They will need to be formed according to criteria of equal participation by men and women and respect for ethnic and cultural diversity, and members will be elected through a selection process that reassures Colombian society and its different sectors.

Pages 182-183, 5.1.2. Justice:
There are three types of sanction: I.- Sanctions applicable to persons who acknowledge exhaustive, complete and detailed truth before the Judicial Panel for Acknowledgement of Truth and Responsibility:
This list sets out the special sanctions concerning compliance with the agreements reached, inter alia, in Chapters 1. Comprehensive Rural Reform, 2. Political Participation and 4. Solution to the Illicit Drugs Problem of the Agenda of Talks. Sanctions relating to harm or injury caused to minors, women and other affected parties are also included, bearing in mind the need for the fullest possible reparations and redress to victims of the armed conflict.

Page 191, 5.1.3.3.2. Collective reparation plans with a territorial-based focus

• Participation mechanisms: The active participation of victims and their organisations with the regional authorities will form the basis for the collective reparation plans with a territorial-based focus. Forumsfor participation will be created to that end to define priorities in implementing the collective reparation measures, ensuring community participation in their implementation and establishing project follow-up and oversight mechanisms. The participation of women in this approach will be ensured.

Page 191, 5.1.3.3.3. National collective reparation plans In the context of the end of the conflict, the National Government will strengthen national collective reparation plans in developing this Agreement. These plans will be gender-based and will be aimed at communities consisting, inter alia, of groups and organisations such as women's and trade organisations….


Page 198, 5.1.4. Guarantees of non-recurrence
Secondly, by means of the recognition of what has occurred in the context of the conflict and of the clarification and rejection of the serious violations of human rights and serious breaches of international humanitarian law, including those that have been historically less visible such as those committed against women, children and adolescents, as well as the rejection of the violence against collectives, social and trade union movements, and political parties, especially the opposition parties that were severely victimised, in order for it to be a shared aim of society that this will never happen again.
Page 200, 5.2. Commitment to the promotion, respect and guarantee of human rights
The end of the conflict constitutes the best opportunity to realise the rights of the victims to truth, justice, reparations and non-recurrence, and in general to ensure the full realisation of the human rights of all, including those of women, children, adolescents, youths and the elderly, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, rural communities, members of churches, religious faiths, faith-based and religious organisations, the Afro-Colombian, black, palenquero and raizal communities, the LGBTI community, human rights advocates, trade unionists, journalists, farmers, ranchers, traders and businessmen and businesswomen…

Page 221, 6.2.3. Safeguards and guarantees Substantial safeguards for the interpretation and implementation of the Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace in Colombia.
e. In relation to victims of the conflict: “Comprehensive System for Truth, Justice, Reparations and Non-Recurrence”
• A special harmonisation programme will be drawn up in collaboration with the representative organisations of the ethnic peoples, for the reincorporation of demobilised individuals belonging to such peoples, who opt to return to their communities, in order to guarantee the restoration of territorial harmony. An educational and communication strategy will be agreed for the dissemination of the principles of non-racial and ethnic discrimination against women, youngsters and girls demobilised from the conflict.
Prisons, prisoner release
Page 126, 4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial-based and population-focused approach:
These plans shall contain at least:

• Evidence-based actions to reduce harm, aimed at minimising the negative impact of drug use on the user him/herself, on the family and on the community, giving priority to more vulnerable groups such as the homeless, women, and the prison population. In the case of female users, actions should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. For the female prison population, special measures will be taken in terms of health, protection and prevention, including measures to prevent HIV/AIDS.
Institutional reform
Emergency/criminal law/corruption reform
Pages 214-215, 6.1.9. Priorities for regulatory implementation
g. Law of differentiated treatment under criminal law for crimes related to crops used for illicit purposes, when those convicted or accused are rural persons not belonging to criminal organisations; this law will include differentiated treatment under criminal law for women in a situation of poverty, with family responsibilities, convicted of drug-related crimes not connected with violent crimes and who do not form part of the leadership structures of criminal organisations, in accordance with the recommendations made by the Organisation of American States
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 1, Preamble

Noticing that, in the opinion of the National Government, the transformations that must be achieved when implementing this Agreement must play a part in reversing the effects of the conflict and in changing the conditions that have led to the persistence of violence across the country; and, in the opinion of the FARC-EP, such transformations must contribute to resolving the historical causes of the conflict, such as the unresolved issue of land ownership and, in particular, the concentration thereof, the exclusion of the rural population, and the underdevelopment of rural communities, which especially affects women, girls and boys.

Page 10, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
In the opinion of the Government, this transformation must help to reverse the effects of the conflict and to change the conditions that have facilitated the persistence of violence in Colombia’s territories. In the opinion of the FARC-EP, this transformation must help to resolve the historical causes of the conflict, such as the unresolved issue of land ownership and, in particular, the concentration thereof, the exclusion of the rural population and the underdevelopment of rural communities, that especially affects women, girls and boys.
The CRR views Colombia’s rural areas as a socio-historic setting of social and cultural diversity in which communities – men and women – play a major role in defining the improvements of their living conditions and in defining the development of the country as part of a vision of urban/rural integration.

Page 12, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
The plans and programmes agreed as part of the CRR are to have a territorial-based, ethnic-based and gender-based perspective that will require the recognition and consideration of the economic, cultural and social needs, characteristics and peculiarities of Colombia’s territories, of women throughout their life-cycle, of rural communities and groups in vulnerable circumstances and guaranteeing socio-environmental sustainability.

Page 12, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform

Equality and a gender-based approach: acknowledgement of women as independent citizens with rights, who, irrespective of their marital status, or relationship to their family or community, have access, on an equal footing to men, to ownership of land and production projects, funding options, infrastructure, technical services and training, inter alia; attention is to be given to the social and institutional conditions that have prevented women from gaining access to the assets of production and to public and social benefits. Such recognition requires the adoption of specific measures in terms of planning, implementation and monitoring of the plans and programmes covered in this agreement so that these can be implemented whilst taking account of the specific needs and distinct conditions of women, in accordance with their lifecycle, painful experiences and needs.

Page 13, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Prioritisation: the comprehensive agrarian development policy is universal and its implementation prioritises the most deprived and vulnerable populations and territories, and the communities most affected by poverty, neglect and the conflict; it focuses on small and medium-sized producers, men and women alike. The rights of the victims of the conflict, of boys and girls, women and the elderly, deserve special attention.

Page 23, 1.2.4. Participation mechanisms: the active participation of the various communities — men and women — in conjunction with the authorities of territorial bodies, is the basis of the DPTFs. To that end, forums will be set up at the various territorial levels to guarantee citizens’ participation in the competent authorities’ decision-making process to develop what has been agreed in the CRR, attended by representatives of the communities, including rural women and their organisations, and monitored by supervisory bodies (namely the Office of the Inspector General, the Office of the Attorney General, the Office of the Comptroller General and the Office of the Ombudsman), in order:

Page 25, 1.3.1. Infrastructure and land improvement

• The active participation of communities — men and women — in the prioritisation, implementation and monitoring of the works.

Page 27, 1.3.2.3. Housing and drinking water: with the aim of guaranteeing decent living conditions to those living in the countryside, the National Government will set up and implement the National Rural Social Housing Construction and Improvement Plan (Plan nacional de construcción y mejoramiento de la vivienda social rural). Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:

• The application of appropriate housing solutions, in accordance with the particular features of the rural environment and of various communities, with an equity approach. There will be equal access to these solutions for men and women.
• The granting of subsidies for construction and improvement of housing, prioritising those in extreme poverty, victims, beneficiaries of the land distribution plan and women who are heads of households. The amounts of the non-reimbursable subsidy, which may cover up to all the housing solution, will be established in accordance with the construction costs and requirements in each region, with a view to guaranteeing decent housing conditions.
• The active participation of communities — men and women — in the definition of housing solutions and project implementation.

Page 28, 1.3.3. Stimuli for agricultural production and the solidarity and cooperative economy. Technical assistance. Subsidies. Credit. Income generation. Marketing. Formalisation of the labour market. 1.3.3.1. Stimuli for a solidarity and cooperative economy: with the aim of stimulating different associative forms of work for and between small and medium-sized producers, based on solidarity and cooperation, which promote economic independence and organisational ability, especially in rural women, and which strengthen the ability of small producers in terms of access to goods and services, marketing their goods and, in general, improving their living, working and production conditions, the National Government will set up and implement the National Plan to Foment the Rural Solidarity and Cooperative Economy (Plan nacional de fomento a la economía solidaria y cooperativa rural).
• Mentoring, technical and financial support for rural communities — men and women — in the creation and consolidation of cooperatives, solidarity and community associations and organisations, especially those connected with food production and supply and in particular organic and agro-ecological production and women's organisations.

Page 32, 1.3.4. System for the progressive realisation of the right to food: in fulfilment of the obligation to progressively realise the human right to healthy, nutritional and culturally appropriate food, with the aim of eradicating hunger and enhancing the availability of, access to and consumption of sufficient nutritional food, the National Government will set in motion a special system for the progressive realisation of the right to food for the rural population.
Food and nutrition policy in rural zones is based on the progressive increase in food production, income generation and, in general, the creation of conditions of well-being based on national plans for access to land, infrastructure, irrigation, housing and drinking water, technical assistance and training, marketing, credit, the promotion of associations based on solidarity and cooperation, and other plans set out in this agreement. This policy acknowledges the fundamental role played by rural women in their contribution to fulfilling the right to food.

Page 33, 1.3.4. System for the progressive realisation of the right to food
• The development of programmes to combat hunger and malnutrition, with national coverage, especially for the destitute rural population, pregnant and breast-feeding women, girls and boys and the elderly. These programmes will include emergency plans for the most vulnerable rural population and those in extreme poverty.
Education
Page 27, 1.3.2.2. Rural education: with the aim of providing a comprehensive service for early childhood, guaranteeing the coverage, quality and relevance of education, eradicating illiteracy in rural areas, helping the younger generation to remain part of the production sector in the countryside, and promoting involvement in rural development on the part of regional academic institutions, the National Government is to set up and implement the Special Rural Education Plan (Plan Especial de Educación Rural). Implementation of the Plan will take account of the following criteria:

• The provision of scholarships with non-repayable grants for the poorest rural men and women to gain access to technical, technological and university training services, to include, where relevant, subsistence funds.
• The promotion of vocational training for women in disciplines that are not the traditional preserve of women.

• A progressive increase in technical, technological and university quotas in rural zones, with fair access for both men and women, including persons with a disability. Special measures will be implemented to incentivise access on the part of rural women and to encourage them to continue.
Health (general)
Page 26, 1.3.2. Social development: health, education, housing, poverty eradication
1.3.2.1. Health: with the aim of bringing healthcare services closer to communities, particularly vulnerable groups and persons, strengthening the infrastructure and the quality of the public network in rural zones and improving the suitability and the relevance of service provision, a National Rural Health Plan (Plan Nacional de Salud Rural) will be be set up and implemented. Implementation of the Plan will take account of the following criteria:

• The adoption of an equity- and gender-based approach that takes account of the health requirements of women, in accordance with their life cycle, including measures to address sexual and reproductive health, psychosocial care and the special measures for pregnant women and children in the areas of prevention, health promotion and treatment.
• The creation of a special public health model for dispersed rural areas, with the emphasis on prevention, which allows the provision of services in the home or in the workplace.

Page 126, 4.2.1.4. Participatory action plans with territorial-based and population-focused approach:
These plans shall contain at least:

• Evidence-based actions to reduce harm, aimed at minimising the negative impact of drug use on the user him/herself, on the family and on the community, giving priority to more vulnerable groups such as the homeless, women, and the prison population. In the case of female users, actions should take into account the relationship between illicit drug use and violence against women, especially domestic violence and sexual violence. For the female prison population, special measures will be taken in terms of health, protection and prevention, including measures to prevent HIV/AIDS.
• Actions to raise awareness and guide the community and institutions to prevent stigmatisation of drug users, taking into account in particular the difference in impact on women and the LGBTI population.
• Actions to expand and improve access to and the range of care and assistance provided by qualified persons to drug users, including treatment and rehabilitation, and that promote, inter alia, affirmative action for women and the LGBTI population. This offer will take into account various specialist initiatives of civil society with qualified experience in the processes of rehabilitation and social integration of consumers, including bodies and organisations from the religious sector and the organisations of the various communities.
Other
Summary: This subcategory contains reference to women and land

Page 11, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
A genuine structural transformation of the countryside requires the adoption of measures to promote appropriate use of the land in accordance with its suitable purposes and to stimulate the titling, restitution and equitable distribution thereof, by guaranteeing progressive access to rural property to those who live in the countryside, and, in particular, to rural women and to the most vulnerable communities, and by legalising and democratising property and promoting broader ownership of land, so that it fulfils its social function.

Page 13, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
Land titling: that is to say, combating unlawful possession and ownership of land and guaranteeing the rights of men and women who are the legitimate holders and owners, so that violence is never again used as a means of solving land-related disputes. Nothing established in the Agreement affects the constitutional right to private property.

Page 14, 1. Towards a New Colombian Countryside: Comprehensive Rural Reform
• Democratisation of appropriate use of and access to land: mechanisms and guarantees that will enable the greatest possible number of men and women living in the countryside, and who have no land or insufficient land, to gain access to it, and that encourage appropriate use of the land in accordance with the criteria of environmental sustainability, land suitability, territorial planning and community participation. With this in mind and in accordance with the agreement contained in section 1.1.1. Land Fund for the CRR (3 million hectares) and section 1.1.5. Large-Scale Rural Property Titling (7 million hectares), the next 12 years will see an extension under the Comprehensive Rural Reform to 10 million hectares. In any case, the goal of land titling will be achieved within the next 10 years and the land titling within the DPTFs within the next 7 years.

Page 17,
1.1.5. Large-scale titling of small and medium-sized rural property:

• Draw up a large-scale titling plan and promote the relevant regulatory and operational reforms, guaranteeing participation by communities and their organisations. The plan must include specific measures for overcoming the obstacles facing rural women when titling property.

Page 18, 1.1.8. Certain mechanisms to resolve conflicts concerning possession and use of land and the strengthening of food production: with a view to contributing to land tenure regularisation and the protection of property rights, promoting appropriate use of land, improving land planning and management, preventing and mitigating conflicts concerning use and possession, and, in particular, to resolving conflicts that jeopardise or limit food production, the National Government will:
• Set up flexible, efficient mechanisms for conciliation and conflict resolution concerning land use and possession, aimed at guaranteeing effective protection of rural property rights; resolving conflicts concerning rights of land possession and use; and, in general, promoting the regularisation of rural property, including traditional mechanisms and participative intervention by communities in conflict resolution. Furthermore, the National Government will, to the same end, set in motion a new rural land legal system that will enjoy appropriate coverage and capacity across Colombia, with emphasis on prioritised areas, and with mechanisms that guarantee access to justice that is expedite and timely to the rural poor, with legal advice and special training for women regarding their rights and access to justice, together with specific measures for overcoming barriers that constitute obstacles to the recognition and protection of women’s rights over land. The participation of women and women’s organisations in the various spaces created for conciliation and the resolution of conflicts concerning land use and possession will be promoted.

Page 29, 1.3.3.2. Technical assistance: with the aim of strengthening production capacities in the rural, family-run and community-based economies to develop rural productive projects and to stimulate technological innovation processes, the National Government will design and implement a Comprehensive National Technical, Technological and Research-Incentive Assistance Plan (Plan nacional de asistencia integral técnica, tecnológica y de impulso a la investigación). Implementation of the plan will take account of the following criteria:
• Guaranteeing the provision of the comprehensive technical and technological assistance service (advances in terms of technico-productive, organisational, social, management, administration, IT, finance, marketing and training) for production in the rural, family-run and community-based economies in a decentralised manner. Comprehensive technical and technological assistance is a free-of-charge public service for men and women who benefit from the Land Fund and for small-scale producers, with priority being given to women who are heads of families, and will include a progressive subsidy for medium-sized producers.
• Regulating and supervising the quality of the technical and technological assistance service, including a system of participative and community-based monitoring and evaluation that will take account of female participation

Page 122, 4.1.3.6. Components of the comprehensive plans for the substitution of crops:

d. Land titling plan In order to promote access to land for men and women and to encourage the process of substitution of crops used for illicit purposes in areas where the commitments made by growers under the NCPS are fulfilled, land titling processes will be sped up under the terms set out in the Large-Scale Titling Plan discussed in section 1.1.5 of the CRR. The Government will adapt the regulations to allow titling land to such beneficiaries, subject to the prior fulfilment of the commitments that guarantee that the property is free from crops used for illicit purposes and that no crops of that type will be re-sown.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 207, 6.1. Implementation and verification mechanisms
d. In order to assist with monitoring the approach and guaranteeing the rights of women in the implementation of the Final Agreement, a special forum (Instancia Especial) shall be set up comprising representatives from 6 national and regional Colombian women’s organisations, to maintain a permanent dialogue with the Commission for Monitoring, Promoting and Verifying the Implementation of the Final Agreement (CMPVI). Its composition and functioning shall be defined in consultation with the women’s organisations and in the context of the CMPVI.


Page 208, 6.1.1. Framework Plan for Implementation of the Agreements

The Framework Plan will include as a priority the practical and strategic needs of women, identifying the multiple discriminations that must be addressed for the execution of the agreements. Furthermore, in respect of the implementation of the agreements, it will drive forward public policies, programmes and reforms that take into account the particular requirements of women and ethnic populations, including impact indicators that make it possible to identify the progress of implementation in that regard.

Page 213, 6.1.7. Composition
The CMPVI will be made up of three delegates from the National Government and three delegates from the FARC-EP in process of reincorporation into civilian life, and will have the accompaniment during the bilateral and definitive ceasefire and cessation of hostilities and the laying down of arms (D+180) by one delegate from each of the guarantor countries, Cuba and Norway, and one delegate from each of the observer countries, Chile and Venezuela. The CMPVI will have a technical secretariat made up by common agreement between the National Government and the FARC-EP, to produce the periodic reports and perform any other task that may be required. The spokesmen and spokeswomen of the FARC-EP in the Congress may be invited to the Commission meetings.

Page 218, 6.2.2. Principles
In interpreting and implementing all the components of the Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace in Colombia with an ethnic-based approach, account is taken of the principles enshrined in legislation at the international and constitutional levels, case law and legal regulations, especially the principle of non-regression, recognised in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as well as the principles and rights recognised in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women – CEDAW (ratified by Colombia on 19 January 1982), International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination - CERD, Durban Declaration and Programme of Action, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and ILO Convention 169 concerning the Rights of Indigenous and Tribal Peoples.

Page 218, 6.2.3. Safeguards and guarantees
Substantial safeguards for the interpretation and implementation of the Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace in Colombia. The principal and non-subsidiary nature of free and informed prior consultation and the right to cultural objection as a guarantee of non-recurrence will be respected, whenever appropriate. Consequently, the phase of implementation of the agreements, as far as ethnic peoples are concerned, should be carried out in guaranteeing the right to prior free and informed consultation respecting constitutional and international standards. A cross-cutting approach will be incorporated, encompassing ethnicity, gender, women, family and generation.
Other
Page 40, 2.1.2.1. Comprehensive Security System for the Exercise of Politics
The System will include the following elements:
d. Evaluation and follow-up:
• A planning, information and monitoring system, which will be inter-institutional in nature and include representation of political movements and parties, will be set up and will make it possible to evaluate performance and results and at the same time to adapt strategy and procedures in order to guarantee conditions of security in the exercising of politics. This system will include specific information as to risks and threats concerning the participation and the political, social and community representation of women.
Other

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