Agreement Relating to the Establishment of a Protected Zone around the Hospital of Osijek

Country/entity
Croatia
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement Relating to the Establishment of a Protected Zone around the Hospital of Osijek
Date
27/12/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Other: Humanitarian)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
145: Croatia negotiation process
Parties
Dr. Ljlijana Stojanovic, Federal Secretariat for Labour, Health, Veteran Affairs and Social Policy
Col. Dr. Miodrag Starcevic, Federal Secretariat for Defense
Mr. Dragan Knezevic, Expert on International Humanitarian Law for the Yugoslav People's Army
Col. Dr. Darko Ropac, Representative of the Croatian Army
Prim. Dr. Kresimir Glavina, Director of the General Hospital in Osijek
Prof. Dr. Antun Tucak, Representative of the General Hospital in Osijek
Dr. Sava Novakovic, Ministry of Health, Serbia
Third parties
Chaired by Mr Thierry Germond, Delegate General for Europe of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
Description
Agreement to declare the hospital of Osijek and a zone around it as drawn on the annexed map, a protected zone under the supervision and control of the ICRC. Provides for mechanisms and principles of the protected zone.

Agreement document
HR_911227_Agreement Relating to the Establishment of a Protected Zone.pdf

Main category
Page 2, 4.
(1) Access to the protected zone is restricted to the following categories of persons:
...- expectant mothers and mothers of children under seven, taking no part in the hostilities;...

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 2, 4.
(1) Access to the protected zone is restricted to the following categories of persons:
...- expectant mothers and mothers of children under seven, taking no part in the hostilities;...
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh