Declaration of Intent and Signatures

Country/entity
Nigeria
Plateau State
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Declaration of Intent and Signatures
Date
10/07/2013
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Since 1960 when Nigeria became independent, it has seen a number of coup d’etats and instability. In 1967, after confederation plans for the Nigerian regions to gain more independence failed, the Eastern region seceded as the Republic of Biafra and this caused the Nigerian Civil War. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic and religious tensions which had existed since before Britain drew new borders when colonising the area. The discovery of oil in the Niger Delta heightened the intensity of the conflict. With the aid of British forces, the Nigerian military managed to take back the territory in 1970. Since then, ethnic violence has persisted.

Nigerian Delta Unrest (1990 - )
Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the 1990s between foreign oil companies and ethnic groups which felt exploited after being forced to abandon their land. The Nigerian military caused international consternation in 1995 when members of the Ogoni tribe of the Niger Delta were found hanged without due process. The proliferation of arms in the region has encouraged the rise of armed groups which have targeted oil companies and pipelines. This came to a head in 2004 when Shell withdrew personnel from two oil fields in response to attacks on wells and pipelines by rebels. The military have attempted to clamp down on militant groups in the Niger Delta but it was not until the establishment of the Presidential amnesty program in 2009 which required the surrender of weapons by militants in exchange for amnesty. In 2016 a new militant group called the Niger Delta Avengers has announced its existence in the Niger Delta illustrating the continued instability in that region.

Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Sectarian violence has also been rife in Nigeria and since 2002, the radical Islamist group Boko Haram have been violently seeking to establish sharia law throughout Nigeria and an Islamic caliphate in the Northern part of the country. In 2009 they began an official insurgency which spread to Cameroon, Chad and Niger. In 2014 the group kidnapped 276 girls from a college in Chibok and bombed the town of Jos. The insurgency is the result of Muslim – Christian tensions in the country which is a constant source of instability and violence. In 2015 the military led a regional coalition of forces on a counter-offensive against Boko Haram and they were successful in taking ground. There are also conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Christian peasants in the Middle belt. Widespread corruption and lack of state authority exacerbate these many complex tensions.

Central Nigerian communal conflicts (1978 - )
Unrest in Nigeria is a product of socio-economic pressures between migrating herdsmen and settled agriculturists, exacerbated by firearms proliferation, ethnic conflict, sectarianism and banditry. Since 2001, attacks have adopted a more sectarian character involving suicide bombings and shooting at churches by the jihadist group, Boko Haram. Peaks of violence occurred in 2004 and 2011, patoral/farmer conflict has resulted in the deaths of thousands since the Fourth Nigerian Republic was founded in 1999. The Land Use Act of 1978, exacerbated conflict by allowing longtime occupants 'indigeneship' and the ability to apply for a certificate of occupancy, putting migrating communities at a disadvantage.
Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Principles)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
177: Nigeria - Plateau State Process
Parties
Signatures
Chairman of the Afizere Steering Committee Agwom Nyam Isha
Chairman of the Anaguta Steering Committee Aminu Agwom Zang
Chairman of the Berom Steering Committee Dr. Da Jonah Madugu
Chairman of the Fulani Steering Committee Alhaji Shehu Buba
Chairman of the Hausa Steering Committee Alhaji Umaru Sani
Third parties
Description
A pre-negotiation agreement negotiated by Humanitarian Dialogue Centre between five ethnic groups in Nigeria, Plateau State - the Afizere, Anaguta, Berom, Fulani and Hausa. The Agreement lists the issues that need to be discussed, the different opinions on each of these issues by each ethnic group, the relevant stakeholders to be included in each issue, and a comprehensive time frame for addressing it (as well as activities to be conducted by Humanitarian Dialogue Centre to assist efforts). There are 30 issues over all addressing everything from governance, crime, transitional justice, access, the idigeneship issue, demarcation of boundaries, employment, the market, cultural heritage and sancations, among other issues.

Agreement document
NG_130710_Roadmap-Agenda-for-Discussion.pdf

Main category
Page 5, Religious Tolerance and Customs: Anaguta: Hausa and Fulani do not respect traditions, customs and culture. Hausa and Fulani have married several ABA women, but attempts by ABA men to marry HF women result in the killing of the man, woman, or both.

Page 12, 17. Increase in Employment (in particular for youths)
Berom: There is need to expand opportunities for gainful employment and utilization of the vast resources for the benefit of all, especially for youth and women. However, the precondition for working together on this issue is peace.

Page 12, 17. Increase in Employment (in particular for youths)
... Afizere: In particular, there should be more women and youths government policies and programs for their rehabilitations.
Poverty and unemployment among the youths needs to be addressed.

Page 12-13, 18. Skill Acquisition,
Anaguta: Development of skill acquisition centres in various disciplines which will help to expose youths and women to various opportunities. It will help in creating self employment and the reduction of pressure on Government.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 5, Religious Tolerance and Customs: Anaguta: Hausa and Fulani do not respect traditions, customs and culture. Hausa and Fulani have married several ABA women, but attempts by ABA men to marry HF women result in the killing of the man, woman, or both.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
Page 5, Religious Tolerance and Customs: Anaguta: Hausa and Fulani do not respect traditions, customs and culture. Hausa and Fulani have married several ABA women, but attempts by ABA men to marry HF women result in the killing of the man, woman, or both.

The University of Edinburgh