Kafachan Peace Declaration, The Southern Kaduna State Inter-communal Dialogue

Country/entity
Nigeria
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Kafachan Peace Declaration, The Southern Kaduna State Inter-communal Dialogue
Date
23/03/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Since 1960 when Nigeria became independent, it has seen a number of coup d’etats and instability. In 1967, after confederation plans for the Nigerian regions to gain more independence failed, the Eastern region seceded as the Republic of Biafra and this caused the Nigerian Civil War. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic and religious tensions which had existed since before Britain drew new borders when colonising the area. The discovery of oil in the Niger Delta heightened the intensity of the conflict. With the aid of British forces, the Nigerian military managed to take back the territory in 1970. Since then, ethnic violence has persisted.

Nigerian Delta Unrest (1990 - )
Conflict in the Niger Delta arose in the 1990s between foreign oil companies and ethnic groups which felt exploited after being forced to abandon their land. The Nigerian military caused international consternation in 1995 when members of the Ogoni tribe of the Niger Delta were found hanged without due process. The proliferation of arms in the region has encouraged the rise of armed groups which have targeted oil companies and pipelines. This came to a head in 2004 when Shell withdrew personnel from two oil fields in response to attacks on wells and pipelines by rebels. The military have attempted to clamp down on militant groups in the Niger Delta but it was not until the establishment of the Presidential amnesty program in 2009 which required the surrender of weapons by militants in exchange for amnesty. In 2016 a new militant group called the Niger Delta Avengers has announced its existence in the Niger Delta illustrating the continued instability in that region.

Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - )
Sectarian violence has also been rife in Nigeria and since 2002, the radical Islamist group Boko Haram have been violently seeking to establish sharia law throughout Nigeria and an Islamic caliphate in the Northern part of the country. In 2009 they began an official insurgency which spread to Cameroon, Chad and Niger. In 2014 the group kidnapped 276 girls from a college in Chibok and bombed the town of Jos. The insurgency is the result of Muslim – Christian tensions in the country which is a constant source of instability and violence. In 2015 the military led a regional coalition of forces on a counter-offensive against Boko Haram and they were successful in taking ground. There are also conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Christian peasants in the Middle belt. Widespread corruption and lack of state authority exacerbate these many complex tensions.

Central Nigerian communal conflicts (1978 - )
Unrest in Nigeria is a product of socio-economic pressures between migrating herdsmen and settled agriculturists, exacerbated by firearms proliferation, ethnic conflict, sectarianism and banditry. Since 2001, attacks have adopted a more sectarian character involving suicide bombings and shooting at churches by the jihadist group, Boko Haram. Peaks of violence occurred in 2004 and 2011, patoral/farmer conflict has resulted in the deaths of thousands since the Fourth Nigerian Republic was founded in 1999. The Land Use Act of 1978, exacerbated conflict by allowing longtime occupants 'indigeneship' and the ability to apply for a certificate of occupancy, putting migrating communities at a disadvantage.
Nigerian Civil War (1967), Delta Unrest (1990 - ), Communal Conflicts (1978 - ), and Boko Haram Insurgency (2009 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
152: Nigeria - local agreements
Parties
Jema'a Local Government Area
Bajju
1. Samuel Yakubu Ninyio
2. Chief Dakachi Diem Anthony
3. Bulus Haruna
4. Mrs. Janet James
5. Rev. Cassimir M. Yabo
6. Mr. Gregory Namadi

Fantswam
1. Mammuda Z. Habu
2. Chief Ayuba Yaya
3. Mr. Jospeh Yakusa
4. Esther M. Adamu
5. Rev. Joshua Chechet
6. John B. Awodi

Fulani
1. Alh. Haruna Usman
2. Ardo Sulaiman Yashi
3. Abdulhamid Musa
4. Maryam Suleiman
5. Abubkar S. Sadiq
6. Ardo Abubakar Gamba

Gwong
1. Hon. Hussaini Dogara
2. Sen. Babale Maikarfi
3. Paul M. Bonnet
4. Hon. Naomi Waziri
5. Maj. Gen. Adamu Dyeri Rtd.

Hausa
1. Danjuma Musa
2. Alh. Garba Abdullahi Maisukuni
3. Alh. Kabir Abdu
4. Maimuna G. Abdullahi
5. Alh. Kabir Mami Kasim
6. Alh. Haruna Saluhu
Igbo
1. Chief Chibu-eze Akpu
5. Hon. Christopher Oriala

Kaninkon
1. Alh. Ismail Suleiman
2. William B. Gimba
3. Willisi Sati
4. Monica A. Tete
5. Pastor Ishaku Maman
6. Samuel B. Tete

Kachia Local Government Area
Adara
1. Norman Shekarau
2. Stephen A. Garba
3. Yusuf Kaura
4. Hauwa Kadarko
5. Rev. Peter Kimbe
6. Stephen Yakubu

Bajju
1. Mr. Musa Adwak
2. Mr. Sani Tawai
3. Raphael Augustine Dogo
4. Mrs. Victoria Anthony
5. Rev. Jesse Mallam
6. Mr. Goliath Gandu

Fulani
1. Adamu Dauda
2. Ardo Ayuba Hassan
3. Alh. Ardo Konkwa
4. Hajiya Karimatu Wakili Musa
5. Mallam Usman Garba Mohammed
6. Alh. Yusuf Usman

Hausa
1. Alh. Rabiu Suleiman
2. Sabiu Suleiman
3. Alh. Sirajo Jibrin
4. Malama Bilkisu Bako
5. Mal. Idris Yunusa
6. Alh. Ibrahim Alkasim

Jaba
1. Mr. Danladi Dare
2. Wakili Danjuma Amana
3. Mr. Daniel Shehu
4. Mrs. Theresa Bala
5. Rev. Habila Yohanna
6. Mr. Gabriel Adamu

Ikulu
1. Emmanuel Ayuba
2. Ishaya Bulus
3. Yakubu Dodo

Kuturmi
1. Capt. Christopher Maidawa
2. Mr. Samaila Danfulani
3. Mr. Sunday Yakubu
4. Mrs. Christiana A. Joseph
5. Rev. Ayuba Dogon Yaro
6. Yohanna Danfulani

Kaura Local Government Area
Fulani
1. Ardo Alhaji Hari
2. Ardo Bayero Ahmadu
3. Alh. Abubakar Nasiru Nace
4. Hajiya Zainab Adamu
5. Abdullahi Bayero
6. Malam Musa Abubakar

Hausa
1. Kasimu Abubakar (Chr)
2. Mustapha Muhammadu
3. Alh. Dahiru Mu'azu
4. Maryam Sa'adu
5. Shehu Danjuma
6. Ahmed Haruna

Igbo
1. Chief Sunday Ezekiel
Kagoro
1. Philip N. Suku (Chr)
2. David P. Datiyong
3. Andrew Simon Kazah
4. Mrs. Kande Ishaya
5. Rev. Joshua Z. Yamang
6. Ajim Bonatson
Sholio (Moro'a)
1. Naman Ishaya Auta
2. Mr. Shehu Abui (Chr)
3. Gideon Laaki Ninyio
4. Mary Julius
5. Rev. Goar
6. Thomas D. Kazah

Takad
1. Ignatius Raymond
2. Mr. Alphonsus Ngu B.
3. Mr. Raphael Soja
4. Angelina I. Boye
5. Rev. Irimiya Zango
6. Rtd. Pastor Joseph Bakugde
Sanga Local Government Area

Ayu
1. Mal. Labaran Hassan (Chr)
2. Rtd. Inp Danjuma Garba
3. Dauda Aliyu Abdullahi
4. Malama Salamatu Isa
5. Rev. Dadut John
6. Mal Musa Abubakar

Fulani
1. Alh. Alhassan Abdulkarim (Chr)
2. Ardo Abdulrahman Ya'u
3. Malam Usman Sa'idu
4. Hajiya Hairu Yakuba
5. Abdullahi Mohammad
6. Alh. Dere Kantoma Wakili

Gwandara
1. Mr. Danjuma Yakubu
2. Mal Bala Adawet
3. Mal Bala Zakariah (Chr)
4. Mrs. Christina Bitrus
5. Rev. Danladi Agbun Danboyi
6. Mr. Yohanna Madaki

Hausa
1. Mal Aliyu Adamu
2. Hon. Alh. Salau Babale
3. Mal Bala Aminu
4. Malama Binta Mohammed
5. Mal Musa Abdullahi
6. Yahaya Barau (Chr)

Mada
1. Mr. Daniel Jatau
2. Mr. John Lange
3. Mr. Amos Waziri
4. Mrs. Gloria Monday
5. Rev. Yakubu Bulus
6. Hon. Bitrus Danboyi Dogari

Nandu
1. Mr. Nuhu Tukura
2. Rtd. Pastor Yohanna Aloko
3. Mr. Ruden Lawal
4. Mrs. Jumai Danladi
5. Rev Danladi Ali
6. Mr. Danladi Adamu (Chr)

Ninzo
1. Abdullahi Nuhu
2. Mal Aminu Abdullahi
3. Elisha Aku
4. Christie E. Musa
5. Ali Y. Jetau
6. Mr. Joel Adamu Mande (Chr)

Numana
1. Mr. Gambo A. Danjuma (Chr)
2. Chief Jibrin S. Kogi
3. Barr I.B. Yakubu
4. Mrs. Comfort Habila
5. Rev. Isa Tanko
6. Rtd. C.S.C. Adamu Shamaki

Zangon-Kataf Local Government Area
Atyap
1. Bulus Yayit
2. Deacon Simon CB Saddih (Magajin Rafi Atyap)
3. Joseph Timbuwak (Sarkin Samari Atyap)
4. Martina Ignatius
5. Rev. Jonathan Nkom
6. ACP. Juri B. Ayok (rtd)

Bajju
1. Air Comdr Emmanuel Jakada
2. Chief Jospeh Jatau
3. Comrade Gad Ezekiel
4. Mrs. Naomi Ambut
5. Pastor Sharia Chawai
6. Dr. Solomon Yabaya

Fulani
1. Alh. Shu'aibu Mogauri
2. Ardo Rabo (Wakilin Fulbe)
3. Mal. Suleiman Abdullahi
4. Haj. Sa'ad Dawobe
5. Mal. Muhammed Abubakar
6. Ardo Ruguni Pate

Hausa
1. Mallam Nuhu Yusuf
2. Alh. Lawal ATK
3. Gambo Matsirga
4. Aisha Saleiman
5. Mallam Adamu Jibrin
6. Abdullahi Jibrin

Ikulu
1. Shamaki Dodo
2. Mal. Yohanna Barde
3. Dauda Yohanna
4. Asabaru Yaro
5. Rev. Fr. Andrew Dodo
6. Moses C. John

Kamantan
1. Markus Farngan
2. Michael Ballason
3. Micah Audu
4. Caroline B. Usman
5. Bishop Joshua I. Banai
6. Barr. Jacob A. Madaki


Third parties
Signed by the Following Witnesses:
HD Advisors
Alice Wairimu Nderitu, Senior Advisor and Lead Mediator
Dr. Yakubu Sankey
Khadijah Hawaja Gambo
Baba Bala Muhammad
Joseph Tanko Atang
Salihu Musa Umar
Dr. Lydia Umar

State/Local Government and Security Agency
Nasir Ahmed El-Rufai, Governor, Kaduna State
Rt. Hon. Simon Lalong, Governor, Plateau State
[Unintelligible] - Catholic Bishop, Kapanchan
[Unintelligible] - Jama'atu Nasril Islam
[Unintelligible] - Ambassdor, Norway to Nigeria
Eoghan McSwiney - Deputy Head of Mission, Ireland
Amina Dyeris Sijunde - Atorney General, Kaduna State

Kaduna HD Women's Steering Committee Members:
Sanga LGA
Comfort Habila (Chairperson)
Catherine Chukwu
Patuma Haruna
Hassana Usman
Jummai Danladi

Jema'a LGA
Monica A. Tete (Chairperson)
Haj. Maimuna Abdullahi
Hadiza Umar
Esther M. Adamu
Grace Joel

Kaura LGA
Mary Julius (Chairperson)
Maryam Sa'adu
Angelina I. Boye
Kande Ishaya
Zainab Adamu

Kachia LGA
Christina Joseph (Chairperson)
Victoria Anthony
Karimatu Anthony
Hauwa Kadarko
Bilkisu Baku

Zangon-Kataf LGA
[Unintelligible] Yaro (Chairperson)
Elizabeth Olaniran
Blessing Goje
Rebecca H. Akut
Haj. Zainab Ibrahim
Bukola Ajao
Amina Kazaure
Badiyya Sa'eed
Lovina Dasat
Deborah Ishaya
Description
A declaration accompanying the Kafachan Peace Declaration between Farmers and Grazers.

Agreement document
NG_160316_Kafanchan Peace Declaration.pdf

Main category
Page 3, Preamble
We, the parties to this Declaration are: development/cultural associations, Traditional Councils, youth, women, religious and respected opinion leaders and elders brought together by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD), with our consent, because of our history of Inter-communal, farmer and grazer and religious violence. Southern Kaduna has had a number of experiences of violent conflict that constitute a major threat to peace and security. Electoral disputes, farmer and grazer differences in particular, have caused violence, deaths, injuries, loss of property, trauma, widows and orphans, poverty and massive displacements. The stakeholders in this Declaration are convinced that a necessary condition for establishing lasting peace in our State is the resort to dialogue to resolve conflicts.


Page 4, Section I, Article ii
Note that the conflicts in Kaduna have nevertheless left their mark on the whole society but specifically affect vulnerable groups including women, children, youths and persons with disability more and stress the need to provide adequate support for them to rebuild their lives.


Page 8, Section V, Article i
i. Conflict prevention plan: The plan will bring on board the joint efforts of all stakeholders including at the State level, traditional and faith based leaders, women and youth that puts in place a tension management mechanism that;
• Creates a linkage between early warning and early response.
• Ensure continuous monitoring of violent conflict situations.
• Intervene in conflict situations and pursue such measures as are necessary to arrest and redress the situation.
• Make appropriate recommendations for action by law enforcement agencies.
• Provide broad civic education on rights, obligations and cohesion as well as religious studies.
• Teach conflict prevention and conflict transformation skills to young people.
Undertake bilateral consultations and advocacy with political leaders to reinforce messages, identify areas of mutual concern and agreement.


Page 8, Section V, Article iv
Begin and sustain tracks of dialogues among key non-political stakeholders such as business leaders, women’s organizations and civil society organizations to influence and facilitate discussions between political actors.


Page 9, Section V, Article v
Inclusion of women and youths, persons with disability in decision- making and peace processes: On many occasions, reconciliation and dialogue efforts exclude meaningful participation of women and youth. This exclusion causes disenchantment and negative perception of the outcomes of reconciliation efforts.


Page 9, Section VII, Article i d
Create a body to promote peace and reconciliation amongst communities that will:
• Bring perpetrators to justice, inclusive of both indigenes and settlers.
• Consider the compensation of all affected people.
• Address past wrongs drawing on the wisdom and expertise of traditional conflict resolution mechanisms.
• Ensure the inclusion and active participation of women, youths and persons with disability in all peace processes.
• Prevent and protect women against violence.
• Advance and protect human rights, administrative justice and integrity in private and public life.
• Foster respect for the rule of law, transparency and accountability.
• Ensure public safety and security.


Page 10, Section VII, Article ii b
Mobilize massive support for micro projects to train the women, youths and persons with disability.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Other
Page 9, Section V, Article v [Inclusion of women and youths, persons with disability in decision- making and peace processes: On many occasions, reconciliation and dialogue efforts exclude meaningful participation of women and youth. This exclusion causes disenchantment and negative perception of the outcomes of reconciliation efforts.]

Page 9, Section VII, Article i d [Create a body to promote peace and reconciliation amongst communities that will:
• Bring perpetrators to justice, inclusive of both indigenes and settlers.
• Consider the compensation of all affected people.
• Address past wrongs drawing on the wisdom and expertise of traditional conflict resolution mechanisms.
• Ensure the inclusion and active participation of women, youths and persons with disability in all peace processes.
• Prevent and protect women against violence.
• Advance and protect human rights, administrative justice and integrity in private and public life.
• Foster respect for the rule of law, transparency and accountability.
• Ensure public safety and security.]
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Reconciliation and peace
Page 9, Section V, Article v [Inclusion of women and youths, persons with disability in decision- making and peace processes: On many occasions, reconciliation and dialogue efforts exclude meaningful participation of women and youth. This exclusion causes disenchantment and negative perception of the outcomes of reconciliation efforts.]

Page 9, Section VII, Article i d [Create a body to promote peace and reconciliation amongst communities that will:
• Bring perpetrators to justice, inclusive of both indigenes and settlers.
• Consider the compensation of all affected people.
• Address past wrongs drawing on the wisdom and expertise of traditional conflict resolution mechanisms.
• Ensure the inclusion and active participation of women, youths and persons with disability in all peace processes.
• Prevent and protect women against violence.
• Advance and protect human rights, administrative justice and integrity in private and public life.
• Foster respect for the rule of law, transparency and accountability.
• Ensure public safety and security.]
Violence against women
Other
Page 4, Section I, Article ii [Note that the conflicts in Kaduna have nevertheless left their mark on the whole society but specifically affect vulnerable groups including women, children, youths and persons with disability more and stress the need to provide adequate support for them to rebuild their lives.]
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 10, Section VII, Article ii b [Mobilize massive support for micro projects to train the women, youths and persons with disability.]
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 8, Section V, Article i [i. Conflict prevention plan: The plan will bring on board the joint efforts of all stakeholders including at the State level, traditional and faith based leaders, women and youth that puts in place a tension management mechanism that;
• Creates a linkage between early warning and early response.
• Ensure continuous monitoring of violent conflict situations.
• Intervene in conflict situations and pursue such measures as are necessary to arrest and redress the situation.
• Make appropriate recommendations for action by law enforcement agencies.
• Provide broad civic education on rights, obligations and cohesion as well as religious studies.
• Teach conflict prevention and conflict transformation skills to young people.

Page 8, Section V, Article iv [Begin and sustain tracks of dialogues among key non-political stakeholders such as business leaders, women’s organizations and civil society organizations to influence and facilitate discussions between political actors.]

Page 9, Section V, Article v [Inclusion of women and youths, persons with disability in decision- making and peace processes: On many occasions, reconciliation and dialogue efforts exclude meaningful participation of women and youth. This exclusion causes disenchantment and negative perception of the outcomes of reconciliation efforts.]
Other
Page 3, Preamble [We, the parties to this Declaration are: development/cultural associations, Traditional Councils, youth, women, religious and respected opinion leaders and elders brought together by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD), with our consent, because of our history of Inter-communal, farmer and grazer and religious violence. Southern Kaduna has had a number of experiences of violent conflict that constitute a major threat to peace and security. Electoral disputes, farmer and grazer differences in particular, have caused violence, deaths, injuries, loss of property, trauma, widows and orphans, poverty and massive displacements. The stakeholders in this Declaration are convinced that a necessary condition for establishing lasting peace in our State is the resort to dialogue to resolve conflicts.]

The University of Edinburgh