Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities, Protection of Civilians and Humanitarian Access, Republic of South Sudan

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities, Protection of Civilians and Humanitarian Access, Republic of South Sudan
Date
21/12/2017
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
116: South Sudan post-secession process
Parties
H.E. Salva Kiir Mayardit President of the Republic of South Sudan/ TGoNU
H.E. Deng Alor Kuol For the SPLM – FDs
H.E. Dr Riek Machar Teny SPLM/A -IO
Hon. Pagan Amum Okiech SPLM –FDs
Gen Thomas Cirilo Swaka NAS
Hon. Peter Mayen Majongdit Umbrella Party
Dr Lam Akol Ajawin NDM
Hon. Gabriel Changson Chang FDP/SSAF
Col. Joseph Bangasi Bakasoro SSNMC
Dr Castello Garang SSPM
Gen. Peter Gadet SSUM
Gen Bapiny Montul SSLM
Third parties
Pages 15-18, Signatures of the Parties, other Stakeholders, Guarantors and Witnesses to this Agreement
II. STAKEHOLDERS:
Bishop Enock Tombe Loro Faith Based
Prof. Moses Machar Eminent Persons
Hon. Alokir Malual Aguer Representative of Civil Society of South Sudan
Mrs. Amer Manyok Deng Representative of Women’s Bloc of South Sudan
Dr Emilly Koiti Representative of Youth of South Sudan
Hon Prof. Francis Deng

III. THE GUARANTORS:
A) IGAD Heads of State and Government
H.E Hailemariam Dessalegn Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and Chair of IGAD
Republic of Uganda
Republic of Sudan
Republic of Djibouti
Republic of Somalia
Republic of Kenya

B) African Union High Level Ad-hoc Committee for South Sudan and African Union Commission People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Republic of Chad
Federal Republic of Nigeria
Republic of Rwanda
Republic of South Africa
Chairperson African Union Commission
IV. FOR THE IGAD LED MEDIATION:
H.E. Amb. Dr Ismail Wais Special Envoy for South Sudan
H.E. Georges Chikoti Former Foreign Affairs Minister Republic of Angola
H.E. Ramtane Lamamra Former Foreign Affairs Minister People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
H.E. Hanna Tetteh Former Foreign Affairs Minister Republic of Ghana
V. INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AS WITNESSES:
Representative of the Peoples Republic of China
Representative of the Kingdom of Norway
Representative of the United Kingdom
Representative of the Unites States of America
Representative of the United Nations
Representative of the European Union
Representative of the United States of America
Representative of the IGAD Partners Forum (IPF)
Description
The agreement commits the parties to a ceasefire and specific actions to protect civilians and ensure humanitarian access.

Agreement document
SS_171221_Agreement on CoH, protection of civilians and Humanitarian access.pdf

Main category
Page 3, Preamble
AWARE of the deep yearning of the South Sudanese people for the return of stability to their country, and for the chance to live in peace and dignity in an inclusive, democratic and just society, where all human beings can flourish, and girls and women are treated with dignity and respect…

Page 5, PART I, CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES
Article Two Commitment to the Agreement
5) Each Party and any entity with responsibility for any aspect of the Agreement shall take the necessary steps to ensure that women and girls are not excluded or disadvantaged in the implementation of any aspect of this Agreement, and that their special needs and vulnerabilities are fully addressed.

Page 9, PART III APPLICABLE HUMANITARIAN OBLIGATIONS
Article Seven Humanitarian Access
3) The Parties shall facilitate the safe and voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, taking into account the special needs of the most vulnerable, in particular women, children and the elderly.

Pages 10-11, PART IV IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Article Ten Monitoring and Verification Mechanisms

7) The Parties shall provide CTSAMM with information it requires for the discharge of its duties, including the following:

(e) Reporting on sexual violence.

Page 13, PART IV IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Article Thirteen Enforcement of Compliance

5) JMEC to be restructured and reconstituted to include all armed groups, women and youth representation.

Page 13, PART VI MISCELLEANOUS PROVISIONS
Article Fourteen Promoting the Agreement

2) The Parties shall seek the assistance of UNMISS, and any other regional or international entities, to disseminate information about this Agreement to the general South Sudanese public, using appropriate methods, with priority given to the rural areas, women, children and youth in particular.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 13, PART IV IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Article Thirteen Enforcement of Compliance
… 5) JMEC to be restructured and reconstituted to include all armed groups, women and youth representation.
Other
Page 5, PART I, CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES
Article Two Commitment to the Agreement
5) Each Party and any entity with responsibility for any aspect of the Agreement shall take the necessary steps to ensure that women and girls are not excluded or disadvantaged in the implementation of any aspect of this Agreement, and that their special needs and vulnerabilities are fully addressed.
Equality
Other
Page 3, Preamble
AWARE of the deep yearning of the South Sudanese people for the return of stability to their country, and for the chance to live in peace and dignity in an inclusive, democratic and just society, where all human beings can flourish, and girls and women are treated with dignity and respect…
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
Page 9, PART III APPLICABLE HUMANITARIAN OBLIGATIONS
Article Seven Humanitarian Access
3) The Parties shall facilitate the safe and voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, taking into account the special needs of the most vulnerable, in particular women, children and the elderly.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Pages 10-11, PART IV IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Article Ten Monitoring and Verification Mechanisms
… 7) The Parties shall provide CTSAMM with information it requires for the discharge of its duties, including the following:
… (e) Reporting on sexual violence.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 13, PART VI MISCELLEANOUS PROVISIONS
Article Fourteen Promoting the Agreement
… 2) The Parties shall seek the assistance of UNMISS, and any other regional or international entities, to disseminate information about this Agreement to the general South Sudanese public, using appropriate methods, with priority given to the rural areas, women, children and youth in particular.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh