Dayton Agreement on Implementing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dayton

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Dayton Agreement on Implementing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dayton
Date
10/11/1995
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
140: Bosnia peace process
Parties
To the Dayton Agreement on Implementing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina:
Alija Izetbegovic, President of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Kresimir Zubik, President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Dr. Haris Silajdzic, Prime Minister; Jadranko Prlic, Deputy Prime Minister

To the signed Annex to the Dayton Agreement on Implementing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Agreed Principles for the Interim Statute for the City of Mostar:
Mijo Brajkovic, Mayor of West Mostar; Hans Koachnik, EU Admininstrator; Safet Orucevic, Mayor of East Mostar

To the Dayton Agreement on Implementing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina:
Endorsed by: Dr. Franjo Tudjman, President of the Republic of Croatia
Third parties
Witnessed by: Ambassador Wolfgang Ischinger, Federal Republic of Germany; Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, United States of America; Ambassador Fernandez de la Pena, Spanish EU Presidency; Hans Koschnick, EU Administrator Mostar

To the signed Annex to the Dayton Agreement on Implementing the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Agreed Principles for the Interim Statute for the City of Mostar:
Muhamed Sacirbey, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina; Gojko Susak, Minister of Defense of the Republic of Croatia; Ambassador Wolfgang Ischinger, Federal Republic of Germany; Ambassador Fernandez de la Pena, Spanish EU Presidency
Description
This agreement provides for transfer of powers from Government of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and for implementing legislation in the parliaments of the Federation and the Republic to that end. The signed Annex contains Agreed Principles for the Interim Statute for the City of Mostar.

Agreement document
BA_951110_DaytonAgreementOnImplementingtheFederation.pdf

Main category
Page 9, II. Decisions, I, Article 2
...As a first step, existing regulations shall be fully implemented to take effect by 1
December, in order to provide:... an unlimited number of crossings for women, children and men not of military age or military obligation, as well as simpler procedures for the crossings, without prior registration.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 9, II. Decisions, I, Article 2
...
As a first step, existing regulations shall be fully implemented to take effect by 1 December, in order to provide:
...
an unlimited number of crossings for women, children and men not of military age or military obligation, as well as simpler procedures for the crossings, without prior registration.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh