Acte d'Engagement Gaborone

Democratic Republic of Congo
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Acte d'Engagement Gaborone
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Congo Civil Wars (1996 - )
The overthrow of the long-term dictator Mobutu Sese Seko by a rebel Tutsi army backed by Uganda and Rwanda in 1997 acted as a catalyst for a war with regional dimensions, mainly fought in the eastern Kivu provinces. The conflict escalated in 1998, when President Laurent Kabila, then backed by Zimbabwean and Angolan troops, ordered Rwanda and Uganda to leave. After Kabila’s assassination in 2001, his son Joseph took over the presidency and won in the 2006 democratic elections.

In the eastern provinces, Tutsi-led militias, mainly organised in the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), fought the remnants of the Rwandan Hutu force FDLR, with further involvement of Rwandan and Ugandan troops. Other regionally operating militia groups, like the Lord’s Resistance Army from Northern Uganda, the so-called Mai Mai groups or short-lived guerrilla outfits like the March 23 Movement (M23) further contributed, and still contribute, to the complexity of the situation in eastern DRC.

Congo Civil Wars (1996 - ) )
Pre-negotiation/process (Confidence building measure)
Conflict nature
Peace process
28: DRC: Second Congo war process
Unsigned copy.
The parties are defined in the agreement as: The Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Congo Liberation Movement (Mouvement pour la Libération du Congo, MLC), the Congolese Rally for Democracy (Rassemblement pour la Démocratie, RCD), the political opposition organisations and groups, and the “life-blood” of the nation.
Third parties
In the presence of Ketumile Masire (then President of Botswana) as the neutral facilitator of the inter-congolese political negotiations
This agreement between the DRC Government, the MLC, the RCD and political opposition parties covers a range of issues including liberalisation of political life, human rights and humanitarian issues, political prisoner release and suspension of military court proceedings for civilian cases, and a range of security issues.

Agreement document
CD_010824_Acted'EngagementGaberone-tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CD_010824_Acted'engagementGaberone.pdf []

Main category
- prenons l’engagement solennel et inconditionnel d’appliquer, sur toute l’étendue du territoire national, les dispositions ci-après :

(p. 2)
7. assurer la protection des populations civiles contre les rafles, les arrestations arbitraires, les réquisitions, les spoliations, les travaux forcés, les massacres, les bombardements aveugles, les tortures, les viols des femmes, les mutilations des enfants, les déportations et assurer l’arrêt définitif à la collaboration avec les forces génocidaires;


Page 2,
We... - solemnly and unconditionally engage to implement, on the entire national territory, the following provisions:
7. To ensure the protection of the civilian population against raids, arbitrary arrest, appropriations, dispossessions, forced labour, massacres, indiscriminate bombing, torture, rape of women, child mutilation and deportations, and ensure that collaboration with genocidal forces shall cease definitively;

Women, girls and gender

No specific mention.
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 2,
We... - solemnly and unconditionally engage to implement, on the entire national territory, the following provisions:
7. guarantee to protect the civilian populations from raids, arbitrary arrests, requisitions, spoliations, forced labour, massacres, indiscriminate bombardments, torture, the rape of women, the mutilation of children, deportations and to guarantee the definitive end to collaborations with the genocidal forces;...
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
No specific mention.
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh