Actions and Measures for Chiapas Joint Commitments and Proposals from the State and Federal Governments, and the EZLN

Country/entity
Mexico
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Actions and Measures for Chiapas Joint Commitments and Proposals from the State and Federal Governments, and the EZLN
Date
16/02/1996
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Zapatista Uprising (1994 - )
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between United States, Canada and Mexico implied the removal of the Article 27 of Mexico's constitution that protected the native communal landholdings. In reaction, the left-wing Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) declared war against the Mexican government on the day of the signing of the NAFTA agreement, 1 January 1994.
Led by charismatic Subcomandante Marcos, the EZLN rapidly gained popularity among the left-wing youth in the Americas and in Europe and established a considerable global media presence.
Peace negotiations started in 1995, leading to several agreements, the San Andrés Accords signed in 1995 and 1996. However, socio-political tensions with the Mexican state and the lack of protection of the indigenous peoples and subsistence farmers remained unresolved. Nowadays, the Chiapas Conflict continues as a low-intensity conflict.
Zapatista Uprising (1994 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
82: Mexico-Chiapas peace process
Parties
EZLN, Mexican Government
Third parties
Description
Agreement dealing with political participation and representation; guarantees of access to justice; situations, rights and culture of indigenous women; access to the communication media; education and culture; Institutions for the Promotion, Development and Diffusion of Indigenous Cultures.

Agreement document
MX_960216_Actions and Measures for Chiapas Joint Commitments and Proposals from EZLN.pdf

Main category
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 1
Analyzed from the viewpoint of indigenous women from Chiapas, the problem of rights demands an end to silent voices and secular oblivion. To do away with the latter it is necessary to act on both national as well as State legislation in order to guarantee their fundamental rights as human beings and as indigenous people.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 2
Incorporate political rights into legislation, as well as respect for indigenous practices and customs, respecting the dignity and human rights of indigenous women.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 3
Within the constitutional framework of autonomy, recognize the specific rights of the indigenous woman.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 4
Guarantee the labor rights of indigenous workers, particularly those in vulnerable conditions such as domestic work or temporary jobs.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 5
Incorporate the rights of temporary workers into the Federal Labor Act.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 6
Review and update the penalties imposed by current legislation for sexual crimes, harassment against women, and intra-family violence.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 7
For the indigenous women and children of Chiapas, guarantee the right to health care, education and culture, nutrition, a dignified dwelling, basic services, and the right to participate in educational projects leading to a deserving integral development by allowing the contribution of indigenous women and designed for their particular needs.

Page 4, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 8
Compliance with the international pacts and conventions which have been entered into by the Mexican government. Of particular importance here is Convention 169 of the ILO, the Vienna Declaration on Human Rights referring to the elimination of any form of discrimination against women, and the Agreement of the World Conference on Population and Development referring to the health and reproductive rights of women as long as these do not contravene the basic principles of the General Constitution of the Republic.

Page 6, EDUCATION AND CULTURE, Paragraph 12
Recognition and respect must be given to the right to wear traditional indigenous dress in
all spheres of public life, particularly in the case of children and young people of both sexes in a school environment.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 4, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 8
Compliance with the international pacts and conventions which have been entered into by the Mexican government. Of particular importance here is Convention 169 of the ILO, the Vienna Declaration on Human Rights referring to the elimination of any form of discrimination against women, and the Agreement of the World Conference on Population and Development referring to the health and reproductive rights of women as long as these do not contravene the basic principles of the General Constitution of the Republic.
Social equality
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 7
For the indigenous women and children of Chiapas, guarantee the right to health care, education and culture, nutrition, a dignified dwelling, basic services, and the right to participate in educational projects leading to a deserving integral development by allowing the contribution of indigenous women and designed for their particular needs.
Particular groups of women
Indigenous/nomadic women
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 1
Analyzed from the viewpoint of indigenous women from Chiapas, the problem of rights demands an end to silent voices and secular oblivion. To do away with the latter it is necessary to act on both national as well as State legislation in order to guarantee their fundamental rights as human beings and as indigenous people.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 2
Incorporate political rights into legislation, as well as respect for indigenous practices and customs, respecting the dignity and human rights of indigenous women.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 3
Within the constitutional framework of autonomy, recognize the specific rights of the indigenous woman.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 7
For the indigenous women and children of Chiapas, guarantee the right to health care, education and culture, nutrition, a dignified dwelling, basic services, and the right to participate in educational projects leading to a deserving integral development by allowing the contribution of indigenous women and designed for their particular needs.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 1
Analyzed from the viewpoint of indigenous women from Chiapas, the problem of rights demands an end to silent voices and secular oblivion. To do away with the latter it is necessary to act on both national as well as State legislation in order to guarantee their fundamental rights as human beings and as indigenous people.

Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 2
Incorporate political rights into legislation, as well as respect for indigenous practices and customs, respecting the dignity and human rights of indigenous women.
International human rights standards
Page 4, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 8
Compliance with the international pacts and conventions which have been entered into by the Mexican government. Of particular importance here is Convention 169 of the ILO, the Vienna Declaration on Human Rights referring to the elimination of any form of discrimination against women, and the Agreement of the World Conference on Population and Development referring to the health and reproductive rights of women as long as these do not contravene the basic principles of the General Constitution of the Republic.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 6
Review and update the penalties imposed by current legislation for sexual crimes, harassment against women, and intra-family violence.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 7
For the indigenous women and children of Chiapas, guarantee the right to health care, education and culture, nutrition, a dignified dwelling, basic services, and the right to participate in educational projects leading to a deserving integral development by allowing the contribution of indigenous women and designed for their particular needs.

Page 6, EDUCATION AND CULTURE, Paragraph 12
Recognition and respect must be given to the right to wear traditional indigenous dress in
all spheres of public life, particularly in the case of children and young people of both sexes in a school environment.
Health (general)
Page 3, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 7 For the indigenous women and children of Chiapas, guarantee the right to health care, education and culture, nutrition, a dignified dwelling, basic services, and the right to participate in educational projects leading to a deserving integral development by allowing the contribution of indigenous women and designed for their particular needs.

Page 4, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 8 Compliance with the international pacts and conventions which have been entered into by the Mexican government. Of particular importance here is Convention 169 of the ILO, the Vienna Declaration on Human Rights referring to the elimination of any form of discrimination against women, and the Agreement of the World Conference on Population and Development referring to the health and reproductive rights of women as long as these do not contravene the basic principles of the General Constitution of the Republic.
Reproductive rights
Page 4, SITUATION, RIGHTS AND CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS WOMEN, Paragraph 8
Compliance with the international pacts and conventions which have been entered into by the Mexican government. Of particular importance here is Convention 169 of the ILO, the Vienna Declaration on Human Rights referring to the elimination of any form of discrimination against women, and the Agreement of the World Conference on Population and Development referring to the health and reproductive rights of women as long as these do not contravene the basic principles of the General Constitution of the Republic.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh