Agreements relate to two distinct conflict dyads.
Libya-Chad. Since the 1970s, Libya under Colonel Muammar Gaddafi had a tense relationship with its neighbour Chad, predominantly focused on the resource-rich Aouzou Strip in northern Chad. Libyan claims of the Aouzou Strip were held in an un-ratified treaty between France and Italy in 1935, similarly Chadian claims of the Strip were argued with support of a 1955 treaty between Libya and France. In 1973, Libya effectively annexed the Strip to gain access to natural resources. This spurred cross-border clashes between 1979 until 1987 until escalated to a brief war known as the Toyota War, wherein Chadian government troops succeeded in repelling Libyan forces. A brief and repeatedly violated ceasefire was held from 1987-88, followed by a series of unsuccessful negotiations, until an International Court of Justice ruling in 1994, which granted sovereignty of the Strip to Chad.
Libya post-Gaddafi. Gaddafi’s downfall following the Libyan Civil War in 2011-2012, led to several factions fighting for the country’s leadership. Since 2013, the country effectively split into three entities, with the National Army controlling the east including the city of Benghazi, and the New General National Congress and their militias such as the Golden Dawn controlling the northwest including the capital of Tripoli. Significant portions of the country in the south-west are currently held by Tuareg forces. The civil war and chaos continued into 2014 as the General National Congress refused to disband after the expiry of its mandate, resulting in eruption of mass protests. The UN efforts continue to broker peace between the Libyan Army and the Libya Dawn factions, and a partial ceasefire was declared in January 2015. A new interim-government (Tunisia-based) called ‘Government of National Accord’ is formed with the backing of UN despite the refusal of the other forces to recognise its authority and arrived to Tripoli with the UN in 2016. A state of emergency was declared by the UN backed government amid clashed between rival militia in Tripoli’s southern suburbs. Since April 2019 there has been sustained fighting between the Libyan National Army and the UN-backed government in Tripoli as the Libyan National Army aims to seize Tripoli.
Libyan Conflicts (1969 - 1994) (2011 - )
70: Libyan peace process
Declaration without signatories, but document states itself to be one of Libya and International partners', and lists partners as 'Participants
included a broad Libyan presence,with delegations from PC/GNA, HOR,
HSC andLNA. Countries invited included representatives of
Algeria, Austria, Canada, Chad, China, Czech Republic,Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Jordan, Malta, Morocco, the Netherlands, Niger, Poland, Qatar, Republic of Congo, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Swiss Confederation, Tunisia,Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the African Union, the European Union, the League of Arab States,the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations.
UN Special Representative of the Secretary General Ghassan Salamé stated to be present
An agreement in the form of conference conclusions. The conference was an attempt to implement a UN Stabilisation plan, to agree on the road map for stabilization, unified institutions, and clear electoral legislation as preliminary conditions for any election to be held. The conference was intended to pave the way for a national conference in January 2019.
The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body,
registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336,
VAT Registration Number GB 592 9507 00,
and is acknowledged by the UK authorities as a
which has been granted degree awarding powers.