Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Gbudue and Maridi States

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Gbudue and Maridi States
Date
02/04/2016
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan - internal
In December 2013, after president Salva Kiir accused opposition leader Riek Machar of attempting a coup, violent conflict broke out between government forces of the SPLM/A and anti-governmental groups. In addition, several other political militias as well as communal militias have joined the conflict. In 2015 the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) was signed. Due to unsuccessful implementation the agreement was revitalized in 2018. In September 2019, Kiir and Machar agreed to establish a power-sharing government after struggles on forming a unity transitional government.
Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
151: South Sudan: Post-secession Local agreements
Parties
1. THE PARTIES

Hon. Tut Gatluak Manimi
Presidential Advisor
For the Government
Republic of South Sudan (RSS)

Commander Mbereke John Faustino
Leader
For South Sudan National Liberation Movement (SSNLM)

Third parties
2. FOR THE FAITH BASED MEDIATION

Barani Eduardo Hiliboro Kussala
Bishop and Chairperson of Faith Based Council

3. WITNESS TO THIS AGREEMENT

UNMISS Representative
South Sudan
Headquarter

4. STAKEHOLDERS

Chief Wilson Peni Rikito
Paramount Chief
Representative of Traditional Authority

Simple John Bakeaki
Youth Representative
Civil Society Organization

Christine Joseph Ngbaazande
Representative of Women Group-WES
Description
This agreement between the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) and the South Sudan National Liberation Movement/Army (SSNLM/A) recommits the parties to a ceasefire and to pursuing reconciliation. It also sets out the specifics of integrating SSNLM/A forces into the national army.

Agreement document
SS_160402_Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Gbudue and Maridi States.pdf []

Main category
Page 4
3. Security Arrangements
...
3.2.3 Establishment of a committee for peaceful Integration
To effect clause 3.2 above, the parties agree that:
...
II. The JMTC shall consist of members of the SSNLM/A, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior and the National Security Service. A nine member Peace Monitoring Committee (PMC) consisting of two representatives from the Faith Based Council for Peace (FBCP), one each from SPLA, SSNLM/A, NSS, National Police Service, UNMISS, women group, civil society and traditional leaders shall monitor and supervise the implementation of this Agreement including but not limited to the integration process and shall resolve any potential dispute that may arise or occur in relation to the implementation of this agreement.

Page 6, Signatories of Parties, Chairperson of the Faith Base group, other Stakeholders, Civil Society Organization, and Witnesses to this Agreement
4. STAKEHOLDERS
Christine Joseph Ngbaazande, Representative of Women Group-WES

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 4
3.2.3 Establishment of a committee for peaceful Integration
To effect clause 3.2 above, the parties agree that:
...
II. The JMTC shall consist of members of the SSNLM/A, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior and the National Security Service. A nine member Peace Monitoring Committee (PMC) consisting of two representatives from the Faith Based Council for Peace (FBCP), one each from SPLA, SSNLM/A, NSS, National Police Service, UNMISS, women group, civil society and traditional leaders shall monitor and supervise the implementation of this Agreement including but not limited to the integration process and shall resolve any potential dispute that may arise or occur in relation to the implementation of this agreement.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 4
3.2.3 Establishment of a committee for peaceful Integration
To effect clause 3.2 above, the parties agree that:
...
II. The JMTC shall consist of members of the SSNLM/A, Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Interior and the National Security Service. A nine member Peace Monitoring Committee (PMC) consisting of two representatives from the Faith Based Council for Peace (FBCP), one each from SPLA, SSNLM/A, NSS, National Police Service, UNMISS, women group, civil society and traditional leaders shall monitor and supervise the implementation of this Agreement including but not limited to the integration process and shall resolve any potential dispute that may arise or occur in relation to the implementation of this agreement.
Signing or witnessing agreement
Page 6, Signatories of Parties, Chairperson of the Faith Base group, other Stakeholders, Civil Society Organization, and Witnesses to this Agreement
4. STAKEHOLDERS
Christine Joseph Ngbaazande, Representative of Women Group-WES
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh