Sudan peace agreement (Juba Agreement)

Country/entity
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Sudan peace agreement (Juba Agreement)
Date
03/10/2020
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Yes
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan - internal
In December 2013, after president Salva Kiir accused opposition leader Riek Machar of attempting a coup, violent conflict broke out between government forces of the SPLM/A and anti-governmental groups. In addition, several other political militias as well as communal militias have joined the conflict. In 2015 the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) was signed. Due to unsuccessful implementation the agreement was revitalized in 2018. In September 2019, Kiir and Machar agreed to establish a power-sharing government after struggles on forming a unity transitional government.
Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
156: Sudan Transition Process
A process sparked by citizen uprising to replace the Head of State and have an agreed transition between the military and political and opposition groups.
Parties
The Transitional Government of Sudan

General Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo
First Vice President of the Transitional Sovereign Council

The Sudanese Alliance
Khamis Abdallah Abkar

Gathering of Sudan Liberation Forces
Altahir Abubaker Hajer

Sudan Liberation Movement/Army
Minni Arko Minawi

Sudan Liberation Movement/Army – Transitional Council
Dr. Elhadi Idris Yahya

Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement
Dr. Gibril Ibrahim Mohammed

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North / Revolutionary
Malik Agar Ayr

United Popular Front for Liberation and Justice
Khalid Idris Jaweish

Opposition Beja Conference
Osama Said

Sudanese Kush Liberation Movement
Mohammed Daoud Bandaq

Kayan Al-Shamal (The Northern Entity)
Mohammed Said Ahmed Sir-alkhatim

Opposition Democratic Union Party / Revolutionary Front
Eltom Elsheikh Mousa Hajo
Third parties
Other Parties:
1. The Third Front /Tamazuj
Mohammed Ali Quraishi

2. Sudan Liberation Movement/Army – Ahmed Ibrahim Kazisky
Mr. Ali Ahmed Hamid
Advisor

Witnesses:
General Abdulfatah Burhan Abdulrahman
President of the Transitional Sovereign Council

The Arab Republic of Egypt

The State of Qatar

The African Union

The United Nations

The European Union

Representative of the Arab League
Ambassador Khalid Abdulrahim Abdalghafar


[not signed, but referred to in the text]
Page 2, PREAMBLE:
APPRECIATING the efforts of the people and government of the Republic of South Sudan and their esteemed role in mediating and facilitating the Sudanese peace discussions as well as the central role of His Excellency President Salva Kiir Mayardit and the Mediation team in achieving this Agreement;
GRATEFUL FOR the valued contributions of the regional and international community including UNAMID, the United Nations, the African Union, the Troika countries, the European Union, the League of Arab States, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and neighboring countries.
TAKING NOTE of all the Security Council, African Union, and African Peace and Security Council relevant resolutions;
Description
This agreement comprises a series of in-essence 6 different agreements which provide for agreement between the Transitional Government of Sudan (TGOS)and different areas, on different but interconnected peace process 'tracks'. These comprise a Darfur Agreement between the TGOS and 'Darfur Parties to Peace' (Title 2); a 'Two Areas' agreements between TGOS and the The Sudan People's Liberation Movement - North / The Revolutionary Front (Title 3); the Eastern Sudan Track Agreement between the TGOS and the Sudan Revolutionary Front (Title 4); Track 5, Agreement between the TGOS and the Sudan Revolutionary Front - Northern Track (Title 5); Agreement of the Central Track between the TSGO and the Sudan Revolutionary Front (Title 6); and Security arrangements between the TSGO and the Third-Front - Tamazuj (Title 7). While the agreements are all varied, they provide on the most part for some representation of these areas in the transitional government and/or wider institutional structures of the transition, and for new governance and security and economic / development provision within each area. The Agreement therefore in its totality in a sense connects the wider armed conflict with different groups, or different factions or branches of the same broad group, with the transition process focused on the move from military rule at the level of the central state, and with the Transitional government (itself a mixed military-civilian government).

Please note that the coding below reflects the key provisions for each category. For several categories (such as Refugees/displaced persons, DDR, material reparations, development, territorial powersharing, ceasefire, women/gender and others) the relevant provisions did not fit into the database format. These additional provisions can be found at https://www.peaceagreements.org/files/Juba%20Agreement%202020%20overspill.pdf

Agreement document
SD_201003_Juba Agreement for Peace in Sudan - Official ENGLISH.PDF []

Agreement document (original language)
SD_201003_Juba peace agreement (Arabic) (signed).pdf []

Main category
Page 4, PREAMBLE
CONFIRMING social, political, and economic justice in a democratic and developmental state in which the rights of all peoples are considered, and equality for women, children, the marginalized, and those with special needs is realized;

Page 7,  TITLE 1, 1. General Principles
1.18.Without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency and the implementation of the peace agreements concluded with the signatory parties, all Sudanese citizens shall be fairly represented in the civil service, public committees, institutions, commissions, armed forces, and other regular forces at all levels.
1.19.The participation of all Sudanese people shall be guaranteed at all levels of governance, state institutions, and civil service. Fair standards for power sharing shall be developed, without prejudice to the conditions of qualification and competency.
1.20.The importance of fair and effective representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions, at a rate of not less than 40% forty percent.

Page 10,  TITLE 1, 9. The Constitutional Conference:
9.7. The Parties agree to the fair and equal representation, on the bases of gender, diversity, geography, and age, in the national constitutional conference, and that constitutional conferences in the regions shall be held as part of the constitution-drafting process.

Page 13-14,  TITLE 1, 26. Education
26.1. As a comprehensive development renaissance in the country requires modern education, the Parties agree that the Government of Sudan shall commit to mandatory and free public education, introducing policies, holding education conferences, providing the necessary resources to assure quality education for all and to eliminating gaps and regional, gender, and social imbalances in education particularly in the war-affected and least developed areas.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
22. Stressing the importance of the representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions.

Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.

Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.18.Promoting the role of women and women empowerment.
31.1.19.Gender policies;
...
31.1.22.Maternal and child care and protection;

Page 30, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. Recognition of the special status of women, children, and youth and their issues, as well as the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in transitional justice processes and in peace-building, and the imperative of their equal participation, and full engagement in all efforts for the maintenance of international peace and security, including justice and reconciliation.

Page 32, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 3: JUSTICE, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND RECONCILIATION PROTOCOL, General Principles
22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
...
22.4.3 Each Party shall select at least one woman on the committee;

Page 36, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 36-37, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
10.1.Individuals and groups affected by the conflict in Darfur, including male and female survivors of rape, victims of physical, mental, and psychological injuries or those who lost their property or whose basic rights were violated.

Page 38, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.4.Women shall comprise at least 40 percent of the functional structure of the Fund.
...
12.6.The Fund’s procedures shall be simple, accessible, transparent, enforceable, free of charge, and takes into consideration age, gender and persons with disability.
...
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.
...
12.16.Regular revision shall be undertaken to ensure the optimal use and distribution of funds allocated to compensate victims, in accordance with the financial procedures applicable in such cases, including the principles of equality of gender and age.

Page 39, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;
...
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.

Page 41, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 42-43, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;

Page 46, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution:
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.

Page 47, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.1.The DLHC shall have the following powers and competencies:
10.1.3.To undertake all appropriate arrangements to ensure the full and effective participation of IDPs, refugees, local and traditional leaders, women, and all affected individuals of local communities in its procedures, including the investigation of disputed land claims.

Page 51, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 9. Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.10.The Parties shall ensure representation of women in structures of the military institution and other security services/security sector and in related decision-making entities, as well as in the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services/the security sector.

Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL, 18. Prohibited Acts
18.4.Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitutes a violation of international law and relevant domestic law

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL 26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
...
26.18.7.The Government of Sudan shall pay heed to the special needs of former female combatants of the armed struggle movements, through training and other forms of support;
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
5. Representation of women at the national level by a percentage of 40%.

Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES, 9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.
...
9.55.To promote the role of women and youth and child protection.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
34. Women shall be represented by no less than 40% [of the seats] on the legislative council.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
50. Appointing local men/women of the Two Areas in the judicial institutions:
50.1.Local men and women of the Two Areas shall be appointed in judicial institutions at a percentage to be agreed, while observing positive discrimination for the men and women of the state/region, taking into consideration the competence criteria for appointment in judicial institutions, including the judiciary and public prosecution.
50.2.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be appointed as judges on the national Constitutional Court in accordance with the criteria of competency and proficiency.
50.3.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the National Commission for Judicial Service and/or the Supreme Judicial Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.4.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the High Public Prosecution Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.

Page 104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
58. There shall be no less than 40% representation of women in the Council of Ministers.

Page 109, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Preamble
Acknowledging the changes that happened in Sudan as a result of the glorious revolution of December 2018 and the key role women and youth played in the revolution which fulfilled one of the key demands of the Sudanese people.

Page 114, TITLE 3. PERMANENT CHEASEFIRE ARRANGEMENTS,General Principles:
13. Sudanese women shall have a leading role in building and defending the homeland. The unified regular forces shall be reformed and restructured in accordance with the Constitutional Declaration and the final and comprehensive peace agreement. Therefore, women will have an important and effective role in reforming these forces, especially the technical units.

Page 133, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
First: Sudan is a sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
2. Ensuring active and fair participation for the men and women of Eastern Sudan in power at national, regional/state and local levels as well as in all organs of the state in accordance with proportions of the population and positive discrimination while observing qualification and competence criteria.

Page 134, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
Human Rights and Transitional Justice
7. The Parties shall consider signing and ratifying treaties, agreements and protocols, particularly those related to the rights of women, children and families and complying with the international law and rules of human rights;
8. Codifying UNSC resolution 1325 related to Women, Peace and Security;

Page 135, TITLE 4. CHAPTER ONE: THE POLITICAL ISSUE, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
Education and Human Development Issues
17. The Federal Government shall prioritize the promotion of education at all levels in Eastern Sudan and pay utmost attention to the education of girls;
...
21. The principle of positive discrimination shall be applied to the men and women of the East in higher education scholarships and external university scholarships in accordance with the policies, regulations and standards of higher education;

Page 142, TITLE 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 149-150, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address the large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.
...
7. Respecting the fair representation of the Central Track in all committees, commissions, or departments formed to address issues in accordance with the principles of competency, taking into consideration the fair representation of women.

Page 154, TITLE 7. CHAPTER ONE: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE, 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.4. Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitute a violation of international law and relevant domestic law.

Page 198, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint men and women of the Two Areas in the justice system
Timing: Upon commencing implementation of the Final Agreement and continues thereafter
Implementing Party: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Source of Funding: the Judiciary and the Attorney General
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 50 to 51.5

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to reform the civil service and accommodate the men and women of the Two Areas
Timing: Within 180 days of the date of signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Reference article: Articles 68 to 70

Page 199, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent the men and women of the Two Areas in the national commission of reforming the civil service
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 71 and 72

Page 203, TITLE 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate full university and post-graduate scholarships for men and women of the positively discriminated state / region to reverse the impact of wars
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 108

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 4, TITLE 1. AGREEMENT ON NATIONAL ISSUES BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SIGNATORY PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT, 1. General Principles
1.20.The importance of fair and effective representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions, at a rate of not less than 40% forty percent.

Page 29, Title 2. Chapter 3: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Protocol
22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
...
22.4.3 Each Party shall select at least one woman on the committee;

Page 38, Title 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
12.4.Women shall comprise at least 40 percent of the functional structure of the Fund.

Page 102, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
34. Women shall be represented by no less than 40% [of the seats] on the legislative council.

Page 104, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
58. There shall be no less than 40% representation of women in the Council of Ministers.

Page 180, Title 9: Implementation Matrices, 4. Darfur Track: Compensation and Reparations Implementation Matrix
Activity: Represent women with a percentage of 40%
Timing: After establishment of the Compensation and Reparations Fund
Implementing Party:
Source of Funding:
Composition:
Procedures: Issue a decision to appoint women
Reference/Article: 12.4
Effective participation
Page 6-7, TITLE 1. AGREEMENT ON NATIONAL ISSUES BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SIGNATORY PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT, 1. General Principles
9. The Constitutional Conference:
9.7. The Parties agree to the fair and equal representation, on the bases of gender, diversity, geography, and age, in the national constitutional conference, and that constitutional conferences in the regions shall be held as part of the constitution-drafting process.

Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
22. Stressing the importance of the representation of women at all levels of power and decision-making positions.

Page 27, Title 2. Chapter 3: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Protocol General Principles
10. Recognition of the special status of women, children, and youth and their issues, as well as the important role of women and youth in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, in transitional justice processes and in peace-building, and the imperative of their equal participation, and full engagement in all efforts for the maintenance of international peace and security, including justice and reconciliation.

Page 42-43, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;

Page 47, CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
...
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.

Page 47, CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 10. DLHC Powers and Competencies
10.1.The DLHC shall have the following powers and competencies:
...
10.1.3.To undertake all appropriate arrangements to ensure the full and effective participation of IDPs, refugees, local and traditional leaders, women, and all affected individuals of local communities in its procedures, including the investigation of disputed land claims.

Page 51, Title 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.10.The Parties shall ensure representation of women in structures of the military institution and other security services/security sector and in related decision-making entities, as well as in the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services/the security sector.

Page 70, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.6.[National] DDR Commission
30.6.3.The Parties agree to ensure the representation of women in decision-making process related to DDR, to effectively and appropriately meet the needs and interests of women.

Page 103, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AND POWERS IN THE TWO AREAS
50. Appointing local men/women of the Two Areas in the judicial institutions:
50.1.Local men and women of the Two Areas shall be appointed in judicial institutions at a percentage to be agreed, while observing positive discrimination for the men and women of the state/region, taking into consideration the competence criteria for appointment in judicial institutions, including the judiciary and public prosecution.
50.2.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be appointed as judges on the national Constitutional Court in accordance with the criteria of competency and proficiency.
50.3.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the National Commission for Judicial Service and/or the Supreme Judicial Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.
50.4.Women and men from the Two Areas shall be represented in the High Public Prosecution Council in accordance with the criteria of competence and professionalism.

Page 112, Title 3, Chapter 4
Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
General Principles:
...
13. Sudanese women shall have a leading role in building and defending the homeland. The unified regular forces shall be reformed and restructured in accordance with the Constitutional Declaration and the final and comprehensive peace agreement. Therefore, women will have an important and effective role in reforming these forces, especially the technical units.

Page 131,CHAPTER ONE THE POLITICAL ISSUE
2. Ensuring active and fair participation for the men and women of Eastern Sudan in power at national, regional/state and local levels as well as in all organs of the state in accordance with proportions of the population and positive discrimination while observing qualification and competence criteria.

Page 146-7, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
...
7. Respecting the fair representation of the Central Track in all committees, commissions, or departments formed to address issues in accordance with the principles of competency, taking into consideration the fair representation of women.

Page 188, Title 9: Implementation Matrices, 7. Darfur Track: Land and Hawakeer Implementation Matrix
Activity: Form local committees for claims that include local, traditional, and community leaders.
Timing: Immediately after the establishment of the DLHC
Implementing Party: DLHC
Source of Funding:
Composition: Local, traditional and community leaders, and representatives of IDPs, refugees and women’s organizations
Procedures: Issue decisions to form the committees
Reference/Article: 9.6

Page 195, Title 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Appoint men and women of the Two Areas in the justice system
Timing: Upon commencing implementation of the Final Agreement and continues thereafter
Implementing Party: The Judiciary and the Attorney General
Source of Funding: the Judiciary and the Attorney General
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 50 to 51.5

Page 196, Title 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Establish a joint committee to reform the civil service and accommodate the men and women of the Two Areas
Timing: Within 180 days of the date of signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the peace agreement
Reference article: Articles 68 to 70

Page 196, Title 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Represent the men and women of the Two Areas in the national commission of reforming the civil service
Timing: after signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan
Source of Funding: Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Articles 71 and 72
Citizenship
Page 16, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. General Principles
15. Citizenship shall be the basis of rights and duties with no discrimination on the basis of race, tribe, religion, gender, sex or origin. This does not prevent the existence of laws, programs or activities aimed at improving the conditions of those individuals or groups who have been deprived of their rights based on race, color, religion, or regional or national origin.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 4, PREAMBLE:
CONFIRMING social, political, and economic justice in a democratic and developmental state in which the rights of all peoples are considered, and equality for women, children, the marginalized, and those with special needs is realized;

Page 130, The Political Issue, General Principles
First: Sudan is a sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.

Page 139 GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. Sudan is an independent, sovereign, democratic, parliamentary, pluralistic and decentralized state where rights and duties are based on citizenship without discrimination on grounds of race, faith, culture, sex, color, gender, social or economic status, political opinion, disability, regional affiliation or any other reason.
Social equality
Page 36, Title 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
7. Without prejudice to the principle of positive discrimination as set forth in the Peace Agreement, distribution of humanitarian aid, the restitution of resources and property, and the award of compensation and reparations in accordance with this Agreement, shall take place without discrimination on the basis of gender, language, tribe, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, status as a displaced or formerly displaced person/refugee, or any other basis.

Page 38, Title 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
...
12.11.[The Fund shall] develop a table for awarding the timely compensation payments on the basis of financial principles that require awarding financial compensation proportionate to the damage and loss suffered by the victim. Women, men, children and persons with special needs shall be treated equally when implementing the payments.
...
12.16.Regular revision shall be undertaken to ensure the optimal use and distribution of funds allocated to compensate victims, in accordance with the financial procedures applicable in such cases, including the principles of equality of gender and age.

Page 39, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.6. Aid for conflicts-affected persons shall be distributed without discrimination based on gender, language, race, ethnicity, religion, party affiliation, geographic location, color, or any other discriminatory grounds.
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
Page 39, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;

Page 41, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;

Page 42-43, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 8. Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees Commission
8.6.3.The IDPRC in Darfur shall establish local committees for claims that shall be comprised of local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees, and women. The local committees shall investigate compensation-related claims and other means of reparations, and submit their reports to the IDPRC in Darfur;

Page 46, Title 2: CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution:
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.

Page 47, CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 9. Darfur Lands and Hawakeer Commission
...
9.6. The DLHC shall form local committees for claims, which include local, traditional, and community leaders, including representatives of IDPs, refugees and women, to investigate claims related to compensations and other means of reparations. The committees submit their reports to the DLHC.
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.18.Promoting the role of women and women empowerment.
31.1.19.Gender policies;
...
31.1.22.Maternal and child care and protection;
Other
Page 20, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 1. 30. Powers of the Regional Government of Darfur
30.1.The Parties agree that Darfur Region shall have exclusive executive and legislative powers to enable it to implement the Peace Agreement as follows:
...
30.1.12.To rehabilitate and support disabled veterans, orphans, and widows and provide care for the families of war-disabled heroes.

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
...
26.18.7.The Government of Sudan shall pay heed to the special needs of former female combatants of the armed struggle movements, through training and other forms of support;
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 94, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT, General Principles
5. Representation of women at the national level by a percentage of 40%.
Page 96, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES
9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.21.To rehabilitate and assist veterans, persons with special-needs, orphans, widows, and care for martyrs’ families.

Page 119, Title 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT
Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
60. Code of Conduct
...
60.8.The interests of the population in the Two Areas and other people residing therein, including women and children, shall be prioritized over personal considerations.


Page 125, Title 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.3.Review the terms, criteria, and plans for integration into the police force, taking into consideration positive discrimination for the population of the Two Areas, especially women, provided that the specified criteria is not violated.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 131, The Political Issue, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
7. The Parties shall consider signing and ratifying treaties, agreements and protocols, particularly those related to the rights of women, children and families and complying with the international law and rules of human rights;
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 131, The Political Issue, General Principles
Second: In order to eliminate political marginalization in Eastern Sudan, the Parties agree to the following principles:
8. Codifying UNSC resolution 1325 related to Women, Peace and Security;
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 21, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 1: POWER SHARING PROTOCOL, 31. Concurrent Powers
31.1.The national federal government and the regional government of Darfur shall have the following executive and legislative powers:
...
31.1.18.Promoting the role of women and women empowerment.
31.1.19.Gender policies;
...
31.1.22.Maternal and child care and protection;

Page 98, TITLE 3. CHAPTER 3: POLITICAL ISSUES AGREEMENT REGARDING THE ISSUE OF SUDAN IN THE TWO AREAS, POWERS AND COMPETENCIES
9. Exclusive powers of the state/regional government: the exclusive powers to be assumed by the state/regional government shall be as follows:…
9.55.To promote the role of women and youth and child protection.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 36-37, Title 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
10.1.Individuals and groups affected by the conflict in Darfur, including male and female survivors of rape, victims of physical, mental, and psychological injuries or those who lost their property or whose basic rights were violated.

Page 39, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;


Page 55, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
18. Prohibited Acts
18.4.Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitutes a violation of international law and relevant domestic law

Page 151, TITLE 7. 20. Prohibited Acts.
20.4. Using force and violence against civilians and subjecting them to maltreatment, including sexual violence against women, which constitute a violation of international law and relevant domestic law.
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 39, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;
Protection (general)
Page 39, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL, 2. General Principles
2.3. The Parties shall pay special attention to protecting internally displaced and refugee women, children, and all other vulnerable groups from all forms of harassment, exploitation, and sexual- or gender-based violence;


Page 41, Title 2. CHAPTER 5: INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES PROTOCOL
4. Suitable Conditions for Return
4.1. With the assistance of the concerned international and domestic institutions, the Parties agree to create the political, economic, social, and security conditions conducive to the voluntary return and acceptable reintegration of IDPs and refugees, without giving preference to any particular group. These conditions shall include, but not be limited to:
...
4.1.11.The Parties shall refrain from attacking, intimidating, or harassing IDPs, refugees or returnees in any way at all times. The human rights of IDPs, refugees and returnees shall be fully respected, with special considerations, protections, and processes for vulnerable groups such as women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities;
Other
Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
...
26.18.7.The Government of Sudan shall pay heed to the special needs of former female combatants of the armed struggle movements, through training and other forms of support;
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 36-37, Title 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, General Principles
10. For purposes of the Peace Agreement, the term “victims of the conflict in Darfur” shall mean:
10.1.Individuals and groups affected by the conflict in Darfur, including male and female survivors of rape, victims of physical, mental, and psychological injuries or those who lost their property or whose basic rights were violated.

Page 38, Title 2. CHAPTER 4: COMPENSATION AND REPARATIONS PROTOCOL, 12. Compensation and Reparations Fund
...
12.6.The Fund’s procedures shall be simple, accessible, transparent, enforceable, free of charge, and takes into consideration age, gender and persons with disability.
Other
Page 29, Title 2. Chapter 3: Justice, Accountability, and Reconciliation Protocol
22. The Truth and Reconciliation Committee (TRC)
...
22.4.3 Each Party shall select at least one woman on the committee;
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 51, Title 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
9.Guiding principles for the final security arrangements, reform, development and modernization of security sector.
9.10.The Parties shall ensure representation of women in structures of the military institution and other security services/security sector and in related decision-making entities, as well as in the reform, development, and modernization of the military establishment and other security services/the security sector.

Page 64, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.5.Combatants who have been integrated shall receive training in accordance with the requirements of each unit, while observing the special needs of those individuals. Extensive training shall be an option given to assist former combatants, especially women, to meet such requirements;
...
26.18.7.The Government of Sudan shall pay heed to the special needs of former female combatants of the armed struggle movements, through training and other forms of support;
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 65, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
26. Integration
26.18.Integration Requirements
26.18.8.The Government of Sudan shall provide support, training, and rehabilitation on equal footing to all integrated combatants, males and females.

Page 70, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.2.General Principles:
30.2.8.The Parties recognize the necessity, during DDR processes, to meet the special needs of children, women, and disabled persons, as a priority. The Government of Sudan shall mobilize specific resources and budgets to meet such special needs of the aforementioned groups at all phases of the DDR.

Page 70, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.6.[National] DDR Commission
30.6.3.The Parties agree to ensure the representation of women in decision-making process related to DDR, to effectively and appropriately meet the needs and interests of women.

Page 71, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.7.DDR shall be undertaken with care and the process therefor shall proceed as follows:
30.7.3.The Parties shall decide to immediately and unconditionally dismiss and release all combatant children, if any, as well as groups with special needs and former female combatants, provided that they are handed over to the Joint DDR Committee to be reintegrated;

Page 72, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.8.9.The Parties agree to ensure the participation of women in DDR decision-making processes, to effectively and appropriately meet the needs and interests of women, including the representation of women in the Darfur Regional DDR Commission.

Page 73, TITLE 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
30. Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR)
30.10.6.To prioritize addressing socioeconomic reintegration of groups with special needs, such as women, or other women, boys, girls who are linked to the forces of the armed struggle movements, as well as other vulnerable groups such as conflictaffected children, combatants with disabilities, and the elderly, if any;

Page 75, Title 2. CHAPTER 8: PERMANENT CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY AGREEMENT PROTOCOL
33. Reform, Development, and Modernization of the Military Establishment and Other Security Services
33.5.The Parties agree on the following:
33.5.12.Sudanese women shall have a leading role in building and defending the homeland, and to this end, the unified regular forces to be built, developed, and modernized pursuant to the final comprehensive peace agreement shall provide for an important and effective role for women in building these forces, especially in the technical units;

Page 112, Title 3, Chapter 4
Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
General Principles:
...
13. Sudanese women shall have a leading role in building and defending the homeland. The unified regular forces shall be reformed and restructured in accordance with the Constitutional Declaration and the final and comprehensive peace agreement. Therefore, women will have an important and effective role in reforming these forces, especially the technical units.

Page 116, Title 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT
Permanent Ceasefire Arrangements
48. The Parties shall abide by DDR principles related to the handling of child soldiers, persons with special needs, and women recruited in connection with the war.

Page 125, Title 3, CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE’S LIBERATION MOVEMENT – NORTH / THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT, Integration
91. Duties of the Joint Police Technical Committee
...
91.3.Review the terms, criteria, and plans for integration into the police force, taking into consideration positive discrimination for the population of the Two Areas, especially women, provided that the specified criteria is not violated.
Development
General
Page 146-7, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
3.1.To provide comprehensive development services by establishing socioeconomic development priorities for the rural areas in order to address the displacement crisis that has affected the central areas and address the large percentage of marginalized workers, particularly the youth of both sexes in the cities of the central states.
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 46, Title 2: CHAPTER 7: LAND AND HAWAKEER PROTOCOL, 8. The Right to Restitution:
8.6. Male and female IDPs and refugees, affected by the conflict, shall have the right to restore any houses, lands, or farms that they have been arbitrarily or illegally deprived of, irrespective of their choice to return to their original homes.
Education
Page 10-11, TITLE 1. AGREEMENT ON NATIONAL ISSUES BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SIGNATORY PARTIES TO THIS AGREEMENT, 1. General Principles
26. Education
26.1. As a comprehensive development renaissance in the country requires modern education,
the Parties agree that the Government of Sudan shall commit to mandatory and free public education, introducing policies, holding education conferences, providing the necessary resources to assure quality education for all and to eliminating gaps and regional, gender, and social imbalances in education particularly in the war-affected and least developed areas.

Page 132, Education and Human Development Issues
17. The Federal Government shall prioritize the promotion of education at all levels in Eastern Sudan and pay utmost attention to the education of girls;
...
21. The principle of positive discrimination shall be applied to the men and women of the East in higher education scholarships and external university scholarships in accordance with the policies, regulations and standards of higher education;

Page 200, Title 9, 10. Two Areas Track: Political Issues Implementation matrix
Activity: Allocate full university and post-graduate scholarships for men and women of the positively discriminated state / region to reverse the impact of wars
Timing: After signing the peace agreement
Implementing Party: Government of Sudan and the state / regional government
Source of Funding: Transitional Government of Sudan
Composition:
Location:
Procedures, Method & Criteria: In accordance with the provisions of the Peace Agreement
Reference article: Article 108
Health (general)
Page 146-7, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
...
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.
Reproductive rights
Page 146-7, TITLE 6. 3. Development, Services, and Revenues
The Government of Sudan shall commit to the following:
...
3.2. Establish specialized centers to combat epidemics and endemic diseases in hot areas, as well as maternity and children’s centers.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
Page 109, Title 3. CHAPTER 4: AGREEMENT ON THE FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS BETWEEN THE TRANSITIONAL GOVERNMENT OF SUDAN AND SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION MOVEMENT - NORTH/ THE SUDAN REVOLUTIONARY FRONT
Preamble
...
Acknowledging the changes that happened in Sudan as a result of the glorious revolution of December 2018 and the key role women and youth played in the revolution which fulfilled one of the key demands of the Sudanese people.

The University of Edinburgh