Gambo - Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement

Country/entity
Central African Republic
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Gambo - Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement
Date
20/03/2019
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - )
The Central African Republic conflict is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts addressed by the African Great Lakes process. After the country gained independence from France in 1960 it has been ruled by a sequence of autocratic leaders that principally gained power through coups. Since the mid-1990s several waves of internal conflict took place in the Central African Republic, primarily along tribal, and later-on increasingly sectarian, lines. In 1996 and 1997, French troops and soldiers from neighbouring countries intervened to end a mutiny in the capital, Bangui, by factions of the army. The fighting was predominantly along tribal lines, with southern tribes in revolt against the ‘northern’ government. A UN mission was installed in 1998 to secure the truce.
After General Bozizé took control of the country after several coup attempts in 2003, a ‘bush war’ began led by armed opposition forces. From late 2006 onward, government troops with French military support severely weakened the rebels. Following this, a number of agreements were signed during 2007-2008, but not all factions have accepted them. In 2011, Bozizé was re-elected in supposedly fraudulent elections, which resulted in a new wave of uprisings. Séléka, an alliance of northern rebel groups, took over parts of the country and forced Bozizé to agree to a power-sharing deal. However, after this agreement broke down, Séléka took control of Bangui and Bozizé had to flee the country in 2013. Leader of Séléka, Michel Djotodia, took office and officially disbanded Séléka. However, continual violence between ex-Séléka groups and opposing militias, collectively known as ‘anti-balaka’, persisted and Djotodia was forced to resign less than a year later. Catherine Samba-Panza was installed as interim president until Faustin Archange Touadéra was elected in January 2016. In February 2019 an agreement was signed between the government and fourteen armed groups, including ex-Seleka groups, committed to disarmament. However, violence between ex-Seleka groups and anti-balaka continues.
Central African Republic Conflicts (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
155: CAR: Local Processes
Various local processes.
Parties
Page 6:
The president of Gambo

The president of Pombolo

The Mayor of GAMBO

The Mayor Municipality of Pombolo
Third parties
Not signed, but mentioned in the agreement preamble, page 2:
"Thanking MINUSCA for its mediation efforts since October 2018, as well as for its technical and logistical support in the organization of the direct and inclusive dialogue of March 20, 2019"
Description
This is an agreement made by representatives of communities of Gambo and Pombolo, with the aim of supporting the security arrangements in their area (Mbomou prefecture). The core of the agreement is in security guarantees and removal of social cover from those engaged in violence. The sides also issue a series of recommendations for other actors: armed groups, the CAR government, and MINUSCA.

Agreement document
CF_190320_Gambo Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement_tr.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CF_190320_Gambo Pombolo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement.pdf []

Main category
Page 2, Untitled Preamble:
Deploring the successive and repeated displacements of population affecting all communities concerned and in particular the vulnerable, women, and children,

Underlining the essential role of women in the peace and development processes in the Gambo sub-prefecture

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Other
Page 2, Untitled Preamble:
Underlining the essential role of women in the peace and development processes in the Gambo sub-prefecture
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
Page 2, Untitled Preamble:
Deploring the successive and repeated displacements of population affecting all communities concerned and in particular the vulnerable, women, and children,

The University of Edinburgh