Statement of participants from Yirol meeting on Wunlit 1999 peace conference after 22 years (Yirol Agreement)

Country/entity
South Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Statement of participants from Yirol meeting on Wunlit 1999 peace conference after 22 years (Yirol Agreement)
Date
19/05/2021
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/local conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan - internal
In December 2013, after president Salva Kiir accused opposition leader Riek Machar of attempting a coup, violent conflict broke out between government forces of the SPLM/A and anti-governmental groups. In addition, several other political militias as well as communal militias have joined the conflict. In 2015 the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) was signed. Due to unsuccessful implementation the agreement was revitalized in 2018. In September 2019, Kiir and Machar agreed to establish a power-sharing government after struggles on forming a unity transitional government.
Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation
Conflict nature
Inter-group
Peace process
151: South Sudan: Post-secession Local agreements
Parties
The agreement lists the following signatories:

Peter Nyuong Danhiar (Paramount Chief, Payinjiar County)

Gum Mading Akuecbany (Paramount Chief, Wunlit County)

Sawat Malual Arop (Paramount Chief, Aduol Kong County)

Jacob Madhel Lang (Paramount Chief, Aweng Payam, Twic County and Chairperson COTAL Warrap State)

Andrew Madot Buoi (Paramount Chief, Yirol East County, Nyang Payam)

Joseph Kong Yoach (Paramount Chief, Guit County)

Elizabeth David Dabuol Ngot (Women League Chairperson, Koch County)

Isaac Magok Gatluak (Paramount Chief, Mayendit County)

Stephen Kuong Mabil (Paramount Chief, Leer County)

Madut Aguer Adel (Paramount Chief, Tonj East County)

Reechdit Anyieth Reech (Paramount Chief, Yirol East County)

Bahon Mabor Deng (Paramount Chief, Yirol West County)

Thiik Riiny Giir (Paramount Chief, Gogrial East County)

Marial Dhieu Malual (Paramount Chief, Yirol East County)

Malok Wol Madhieu (Paramount Chief, Tonj East County)
Third parties
Rift Valley Institute, Assistance Mission for Africa and the Swiss government.
Description
A short agreement calling for further implementation of inter-communal reconciliation efforts involving county chiefs, women, youth and religious leaders through continued community dialogues in line with the aims of the Wunlit agreement of 1999. Substantively this agreement follows up on its partner agreement in Nyal and makes provision for return of IDPS, development and humanitarian supports to address flooding and calls for the enforcement by the office of the regional commissioner to address key issues for community peace. The provisions address community violence and hate speech acts and the prevalence of weapons within communities, calling for an overall solution to ongoing inter-communal violence in border areas between the states.

Agreement document
SS_210519_Yirol meeting signed statement.pdf []

Main category
Page 2, Therefore we resolve:
- To reconvene a second Wunlit meeting bringing together all chiefs from across the three regions together with commissioners, youth, women and religious leaders to convene once again in Wunlit and evoke the spirit of Wunlit;

Page 2, Signatories: We, the undersigned, resolve this on Wednesday 19 May in Yirol, Yirol West County, Lakes State, South Sudan.
... Elizabeth David Dabuol Ngot, Women League Chairperson, Koch County

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 2, Therefore we resolve:

- To reconvene a second Wunlit meeting bringing together all chiefs from across the three regions together with commissioners, youth, women and religious leaders to convene once again in Wunlit and evoke the spirit of Wunlit;
Signing or witnessing agreement
Page 2, Signatories: We, the undersigned, resolve this on Wednesday 19 May in Yirol, Yirol West County, Lakes State, South Sudan.

... Elizabeth David Dabuol Ngot, Women League Chairperson, Koch County
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh