Karbi Anglong Agreement

Country/entity
India
Assam
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Karbi Anglong Agreement
Date
04/09/2021
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (India-Adivasi Conflicts (1955 - ) (Northeast India)
Several of seven sister states in Northeast India have had ongoing conflicts with the central Indian government, as well as among themselves following India's independence from the British Empire in 1947. Northeast India, in particular, lags behind the rest of India in infrastructure development. Tensions also exist between the various ethnic groups and Indian nationals migrated from elsewhere.

Bodoland:
The Bodo are a predominantly Christian group of about four million people living in the mountainous region of eastern Assam, India. Since 1986, the guerrilla organization – the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) – fought for independence of Bodoland. An initial truce was signed in 1989 and negotiations began with the Assam government. However, the NDFB resumed the conflict and new attempts to reach a peace settlement have not been successful. In 2005, a faction of the NDFB entered negotiations and signed a ceasefire agreement after suffering heavy losses. This splintered the NDFB and more radical factions that continue to fight.

Darjeeling:
Gorkhas in the state of West Bengal waged a guerrilla war against the central government from 1986-1988. Anti-foreign riots started in 1979 after a steady infiltration of Hindus and Muslims from other parts of Bengal. Tensions continued until the Accord of Darjeeling peace agreement was concluded in 1988. This accord provided for an autonomous Gorkha district around Darjeeling, which would remain part of West Bengal. It was implemented in The Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (Amendment) Act of 1994. After 2007, a second wave of enthusiasm for Gorkhaland was revived by the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, however, this time by non-violent means. Nonetheless, the introduction of Bengali into schools, raised tensions in a Nepali-speaking region and as of 2017 conflict appears to be increasing.

Hmar:
Tension in Mizoram were primarily due to political domination by the Assamese over the Mizo. The Mizo National Front was formed in 1961 in the aftermath of a devastating famine in the Mizo Hills in objection to Indian Government response, or lack of. With popular support the MNF staged an uprising in 1966, but was unable to take control. It was only in 1986 that a peace accord was signed granting Mizoram statehood and the MNF became a political party. The same year the Hmar People's Convention was formed as a political party advocating for the rights of the Hmar which were ignored by the 1986 peace accord. The movement aimed to create an autonomous state in the north of Mizoram. A 1994 agreement between the HPC and Indian government resulted in the formation of the Sinlung Hills Development Council. However, a splinter group - the Hmar People's Convention-Democracy - was formed in 1995 demanding a separate administration.

Manipur:
The Manipur insurgency is linked to national, ethnic and political identity issues that occupy many of the conflicts in India's northeast that emerged following the independence of India in 1947. Among the largest groups are the United National Liberation Front, the People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak, the People's Liberation Army of Manipur, and the Kanleipak Communist Party. The conflict continues as of 2017.

Nagaland:
The exception is Nagaland, wherein tensions predate 1947 and the Nagas announced their intention to declare independence from Britain. Indian authorities moved troops into the region in 195. Nagaland was eventually declared a state in 1963 and an agreement, the Shillong Accord, was signed between the Naga National Council and Indian Government in 1975. In 1980 the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) was formed due to dissatisfaction with the Shillong Accord with the aim of Naga independence. It split into two factions in 1988. Over 80 rounds of peace talks from 1999 onwards led to little until the signing of the Naga Peace Accord in 2015.

Tripura:
Tensions emerged in Tripura between Bengali-speaking settlers and local ethnic groups during the 1970s. In 1989 the National Liberation Front of Tripura was founded followed by the establishment of the All Tripura Tiger Force the next year. Whilst the Christian NLFT seeks independence from India, the Hindu ATTF's sole goal is the expulsion of all Bengali-speakers from the state.
India-Adivasi Conflicts (1955 - ) (Northeast India) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
132: India-Assam agreement
Parties
Karbi People's Liberation Tigers/KPLT (M):

- Mensing Kramas (Chairman)
- Jishnu Barua (Chief Secretary. Govt of Assam)
- Piyush Goyal (Additional Secretary/NE, MHA)

Representatives of the following organisations append their signature to this agreement:


(i) Karbi Longri North Cachar Hills Liberation Front/ KLNLF
Pradip Terang (Chairman)


(ii) People's Democratic Council of Karbi Longri/ PDCK
Kongkát Teron (Vice-Chairman)


(iii) United People's Liberation Army/ UPLA
Wellesley Terang (Chairman)


(iv) Karbi People's Liberation Tigers/KPLT (Ceasefire)
Sam Sing Tisso (Chaiman)


(v) Karbi People's Liberation Tigers/KPLT (R)
Run Rongpi (Chairman)

List of representatives of Karbi armed groups who attended the signing
of Memorandum of Settlement


(i) Karbi Longri North Cachar Hills Liberation Front/KLNLF
Wiling Son Phangcho (Publicity Secretary)


(ii) People's Democratic Council of Karbi Longri/PDCK
Sanjit Phangcho (General Secretary)


(iii)United People's Liberation Army/UPLA
Longki Bey (General Secretary)


(iv) Karbi People's Liberation Tigers/KPLT (Ceasefire)
Dorsing Terang (General Secretary)



(v) Karbi People's Liberation Tigers/KPLT (R)
Goodwinson Kro (General Secretary)


(vi) Karbi People's Liberation Tigers/KPLT (M)
Men Sing Tokbi (C-in-C)
Third parties
Witnessed by:

- Tuliram Ronghang (Chief Executive Member, KAAC)
- Himanta Biswa Sarma (CM, Assam)

Signed in the presence of Shri Amit Shah (Union Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Cooperation)
Description
This agreement aims to set out a framework for comprehensive settlement between the Indian government, the regional Assam government and the Karbi people within Assam in recognising claims by the Karbi people to being autonomous within Assam. The agreement has territorial and economic power-sharing elements, making provision for a sub-state Karbi autonomous council establishing its governing powers and financial supports. There are also extensive development provisions for the area which also address Karbi identity and culture, defining their territorial areas and protection of their language. The agreement also addresses the rehabilitation of armed groups in the region through DDR provisions.

Agreement document
IN_210904_Karbi Anglong Agreement.pdf []

Main category
Page 1, 2: Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council/KAAC,
2.2 The Government of India may expedite passage of the Constitution (125th Amendment) Bill, 2019 which proposes to rename the Council as Karbi Anglong Autonomous Territorial Council and increase the number of members to not more than 50, of whom, 6 members including at least 2 women members will be nominated by the Governor and the rest of the members will be elected on the basis of adult suffrage.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 1, 2: Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council/KAAC,
2.2 The Government of India may expedite passage of the Constitution (125th Amendment) Bill, 2019 which proposes to rename the Council as Karbi Anglong Autonomous Territorial Council and increase the number of members to not more than 50, of whom, 6 members including at least 2 women members will be nominated by the Governor and the rest of the members will be elected on the basis of adult suffrage.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh