Political (Declaration) Agreement

Country/entity
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Political (Declaration) Agreement
Date
21/11/2021
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
Yes
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan - internal
In December 2013, after president Salva Kiir accused opposition leader Riek Machar of attempting a coup, violent conflict broke out between government forces of the SPLM/A and anti-governmental groups. In addition, several other political militias as well as communal militias have joined the conflict. In 2015 the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) was signed. Due to unsuccessful implementation the agreement was revitalized in 2018. In September 2019, Kiir and Machar agreed to establish a power-sharing government after struggles on forming a unity transitional government.
Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
156: Sudan Transition Process
A process sparked by citizen uprising to replace the Head of State and have an agreed transition between the military and political and opposition groups.
Parties
Dr. Abdalla Adam Hamdok
Transitional Prime Minister - Government of Sudan

General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
President of the Transitional Sovereignty Council - Opposition leader 'de facto ruler'
Third parties
Description
This interim agreement reaffirms commitment to the constitution and the transition, clarifying the tasks set out for the transitional sovereignty council. The agreement broadly seems to be aimed at strengthening the transitional administration by addressing the logistical details concerning transfer of power to a newly elected government and providing for a framework of partnership between political, civic and armed groups. Substantively the provisions include measures to establish temporary political institutions, release of political detainees and the initiation of a comprehensive dialogue between all political and civic groups and opposition forces.

Agreement document
SD_211121_Sudan Political Agreement.pdf []

Main category
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...It is important to complete the transitional period successfully to arrive at an elected civilian government which can be achieved only through the unity of political forces, revolution forces, young men and women, resistance committees, IDPs and refugees.

Page 2, Sixthly:
administration of the transitional period under a political declaration specifying framework of partnership between national forces (political and civilian), military component, resistance committees, live revolution forces, youth and women sectors and Sufi Orders men.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
...It is important to complete the transitional period successfully to arrive at an elected civilian government which can be achieved only through the unity of political forces, revolution forces, young men and women, resistance committees, IDPs and refugees.

Page 2, Sixthly:
administration of the transitional period under a political declaration specifying framework of partnership between national forces (political and civilian), military component, resistance committees , live revolution forces, youth and women sectors and Sufi Orders men.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh