Accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique Domocratique du Congo et la Force de Resistance Patriotique de l'Ituri (FRPI)

Country/entity
Democratic Republic of Congo
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique Domocratique du Congo et la Force de Resistance Patriotique de l'Ituri (FRPI)
Date
28/02/2020
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Interim arrangement
No
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Congo Civil Wars (1996 - )
The overthrow of the long-term dictator Mobutu Sese Seko by a rebel Tutsi army backed by Uganda and Rwanda in 1997 acted as a catalyst for a war with regional dimensions, mainly fought in the eastern Kivu provinces. The conflict escalated in 1998, when President Laurent Kabila, then backed by Zimbabwean and Angolan troops, ordered Rwanda and Uganda to leave. After Kabila’s assassination in 2001, his son Joseph took over the presidency and won in the 2006 democratic elections.

In the eastern provinces, Tutsi-led militias, mainly organised in the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), fought the remnants of the Rwandan Hutu force FDLR, with further involvement of Rwandan and Ugandan troops. Other regionally operating militia groups, like the Lord’s Resistance Army from Northern Uganda, the so-called Mai Mai groups or short-lived guerrilla outfits like the March 23 Movement (M23) further contributed, and still contribute, to the complexity of the situation in eastern DRC.

Congo Civil Wars (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
31: DRC: Eastern DRC processes
Parties
Representatives of the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at both national and provincial levels.

Ituri Patriotic Resistance Force (FRPI)

(see original language document for images of signatures as they were not possible to transcribe)
Third parties
Having met in direct talks organised by provincial STAREC representatives and the MNS and Coordinator of the national NGO ACIAR, under the guidance of the Provincial Government of Ituri, with the technical and logistical support of MONUSCO;
Description
As part of the disarmament process between the government and the Ituri Patriotic Resistance Forces (FRPI) the agreement provides for ceasefire and DDR, factors relating to the demobilisation of FRPI members, stating that they will transform into a political party following signing of the agreement. The agreement stresses the need to continue the work of the government's Stabilisation and Reconstruction Plan for War Affected Areas (STAREC) which aims to address the three areas of; security and restoration of the state; humanitarian assistance and social service delivery; and economic recovery. Therefore following Ceasefire and DDR provisions the agreement also substantively addresses return of displaced persons and refugees, government amendments to amnesty laws and overall improved socio-economic conditions that support transitional justice and community reconciliation frameworks. There is also recognition by the Government for the need to build a similar strategy for the South-Irumu region. The agreement holds detailed provisions for an oversight committee to implement the points of discussion in the agreement in an intercommunal way; the committee is to include members of FRPI.

Agreement document
CD_200228_Accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique Domocratique du Congo et la Force de Resistance Patriotique de lIturi.pdf []

Agreement document (original language)
CD_200228_Accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique Domocratique du Congo et la Force de Resistance Patriotique de lIturi.pdf []

Main category
Page 3, PREAMBLE
...Considering the solemn agreement of various actors who have facilitated the process through the “Pamoja Kwa Amani” project and expressing our gratitude to all of theses actors for their efforts, especially STAREC?ISSSS, the National Oversight Mechanism, the NGO ACIAR, local Walendu Bindi leadership, various community leaders, representatives of civil organisations, religious leaders, feminist organisation, youth representatives, the administration of the Irumu Territory, the provincial government of Ituri and MONUSCO;...

Page 5, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 2: Ceasefire
2. ... - Any act of violence, extortion, discrimination or exclusion of civilian populations, particularly women, children and other vulnerable persons.

Page 7, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 5: Amnesty and release of prisoners
The Government agrees to present a bill to Parliament proposing an amendment to law No. 014/006 of 11 February 2014 on amnesty for acts of insurrection, war and political infractions to extend its scope of application to 2020. This will be done during the first session of Parliament in 2020. The Government agrees to examine the case of FRPI officers still under arrest in order to take appropriate steps, including their release. War crimes, crimes against humanity, serious human rights violations, rape, sexual violence and genocide are excluded from the scope of application of the amnesty law and any other measure described by the previous paragraph.

Page 9, TITLE IV: OVERSIGHT OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGREEMENT
Article 10: Oversight Committee
... On a local level, the Parties agree to put in place a joint local committee presided over by the Administrator for the Irumu Territory, composed of members of the local security committee, FRPI representatives, representatives of STAREC officers, representatives of civilian society, women’s and youth organisations, and MONUSCO.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 3, PREAMBLE
...Considering the solemn agreement of various actors who have facilitated the process through the “Pamoja Kwa Amani” project and expressing our gratitude to all of theses actors for their efforts, especially STAREC?ISSSS, the National Oversight Mechanism, the NGO ACIAR, local Walendu Bindi leadership, various community leaders, representatives of civil organisations, religious leaders, feminist organisation, youth representatives, the administration of the Irumu Territory, the provincial government of Ituri and MONUSCO;...

Page 9, TITLE IV: OVERSIGHT OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGREEMENT
Article 10: Oversight Committee
... On a local level, the Parties agree to put in place a joint local committee presided over by the Administrator for the Irumu Territory, composed of members of the local security committee, FRPI representatives, representatives of STAREC officers, representatives of civilian society, women’s and youth organisations, and MONUSCO.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 5, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 2: Ceasefire...
The ceasefire involves the following for the Parties:...
2. Refrain from any action which threatens peace and security, specifically:... - Any act of violence, extortion, discrimination or exclusion of civilian populations, particularly women, children and other vulnerable persons.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 7, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 5: Amnesty and release of prisoners
The Government agrees to present a bill to Parliament proposing an amendment to law No. 014/006 of 11 February 2014 on amnesty for acts of insurrection, war and political infractions to extend its scope of application to 2020. This will be done during the first session of Parliament in 2020. The Government agrees to examine the case of FRPI officers still under arrest in order to take appropriate steps, including their release. War crimes, crimes against humanity, serious human rights violations, rape, sexual violence and genocide are excluded from the scope of application of the amnesty law and any other measure described by the previous paragraph.
Protection (general)
Page 5, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 2: Ceasefire...
The ceasefire involves the following for the Parties:...
2. Refrain from any action which threatens peace and security, specifically:... - Any act of violence, extortion, discrimination or exclusion of civilian populations, particularly women, children and other vulnerable persons.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 7, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 5: Amnesty and release of prisoners
The Government agrees to present a bill to Parliament proposing an amendment to law No. 014/006 of 11 February 2014 on amnesty for acts of insurrection, war and political infractions to extend its scope of application to 2020. This will be done during the first session of Parliament in 2020. The Government agrees to examine the case of FRPI officers still under arrest in order to take appropriate steps, including their release. War crimes, crimes against humanity, serious human rights violations, rape, sexual violence and genocide are excluded from the scope of application of the amnesty law and any other measure described by the previous paragraph.
Institutional reform
Emergency/criminal law/corruption reform
Page 7, TITLE II: HANDLING OF ISSUES AROUND ARMED CONFLICT
Article 5: Amnesty and release of prisoners
The Government agrees to present a bill to Parliament proposing an amendment to law No. 014/006 of 11 February 2014 on amnesty for acts of insurrection, war and political infractions to extend its scope of application to 2020. This will be done during the first session of Parliament in 2020. The Government agrees to examine the case of FRPI officers still under arrest in order to take appropriate steps, including their release. War crimes, crimes against humanity, serious human rights violations, rape, sexual violence and genocide are excluded from the scope of application of the amnesty law and any other measure described by the previous paragraph.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 9, TITLE IV: OVERSIGHT OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGREEMENT
Article 10: Oversight Committee
... On a local level, the Parties agree to put in place a joint local committee presided over by the Administrator for the Irumu Territory, composed of members of the local security committee, FRPI representatives, representatives of STAREC officers, representatives of civilian society, women’s and youth organisations, and MONUSCO.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh