Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict (Framework for a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict or Paris Accords)

Country/entity
Cambodia
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict (Framework for a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict or Paris Accords)
Date
23/10/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Cambodia Conflict (1975 - 1999)
After the agro-communist Khmer Rouge won the 1970-75 civil war, they installed a regime that subsequently killed almost 2 million people. Despite previous cooperation with Vietnamese communists, the Khmer Rouge feared the potential power of their neighbour and began purging Vietnamese-trained members of their cadre as well as launching attacks on the Vietnamese border from 1975 onwards. In response, Vietnam launched a full invasion in 1978, displacing the Khmer Rouge government and installing a puppet government in Phnom Penh. Vietnam continued fighting members of the Khmer Rouge until Vietnamese forces withdrew in 1989 and in 1991, the UN mediated a ceasefire. By 1992, however, the Khmer Rouge withdrew from the agreement and resumed fighting until they were defeated in 1999. Meanwhile, the 1993 elections formed a power-sharing arrangement between the two largest political parties; Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) and the National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC). However, the CPP consolidated political power following the overthrow of FUNCINPEC’s co-Prime Minister in mid-1997.

Cambodia Conflict (1975 - 1999) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
20: Cambodian peace process
Parties
Unsigned copy of the agreement but based on the agreement text and additional research, parties are presumed to be those included in the Supreme National Council, namely: H.R.H Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the government of Cambodia, Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF), FUNCINPEC, Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge).

Third parties
Unsigned copy of the agreement but based on the agreement text and additional research, parties are presumed to be: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, the People's Republic of China, the French Republic, the Republic of India, the Republic of Indonesia, Japan, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Republic of the Philippines, the Republic of Singapore, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Description
A comprehensive agreement covering the political settlement of the Cambodian conflict. Issues covered include arrangements for the transitional period, the establishment of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia and the functions of the Supreme National Council; the withdrawal of foreign forces; ceasefire; elections; human rights; International Guarantees; Refugees and Displaced Persons; Prisoner Release; Principles of a New Constitution; and Rehabilitation and Reconstruction.

Agreement document
KH_911023_Comprehensive Peace Agreement.pdf

Main category
Page 21, Annex 5, Principles for a new constitution for Cambodia, 2: Cambodia's tragic recent history requires special measures lo assure protection of human rights. Therefore, the constitution will contain a declaration of fundamental rights, including the rights to life, personal liberty, security, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, assembly and association including political parties and trade unions, due process and equality before the law, protection from arbitrary deprivation of property or deprivation of private property without just compensation, and freedom from racial, ethnic, religious or sexual discrimination...

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 21, Annex 5, Principles for a new constitution for Cambodia, 2: Cambodia's tragic recent history requires special measures lo assure protection of human rights. Therefore, the constitution will contain a declaration of fundamental rights, including the rights to life, personal liberty, security, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, assembly and association including political parties and trade unions, due process and equality before the law, protection from arbitrary deprivation of property or deprivation of private property without just compensation, and freedom from racial, ethnic, religious or sexual discrimination...
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 21, Annex 5, Principles for a new constitution for Cambodia, 2: Cambodia's tragic recent history requires special measures to assure protection of human rights. Therefore, the constitution will contain a declaration of fundamental rights, including the rights to life, personal liberty, security, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, assembly and association including political parties and trade unions, due process and equality before the law, protection from arbitrary deprivation of property or deprivation of private property without just compensation, and freedom from racial, ethnic, religious or sexual discrimination...
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh