Agreement on Provisional Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-establishment of Permanent Government Institutions ('Bonn Agreement')

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement on Provisional Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-establishment of Permanent Government Institutions ('Bonn Agreement')
Date
05/12/2001
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Ms. Amena Afzali, Mr. S. Hussain Anwari, Mr. Hedayat Amin Arsala, Mr. Sayed Hamed Gailani, Mr. Rahmatullah Mousa Ghazi, Eng. Abdul Hakim, Mr. Houmayoun Jareer, Mr. Abbas Karimi, Mr. Mustafa Kazimi, Dr. Azizullah Ludin, Mr. Ahmad Wali Massoud, Mr. Hafizullah Asif Mohseni, Prof. Mohammad Ishaq Nadiri, Mr. Mohammad Natiqi, Mr. Yunus Qanooni, Dr. Zalmai Rassoul, Mr. H. Mirwais Sadeq, Dr. Mohammad Jalil Shams, Prof. Abdul Sattar Sirat, Mr. Humayun Tandar, Mrs. Sima Wali, General Abdul Rahim Wardak, Mr. Pacha Khan Zadran
Third parties
Agreement witnessed for the United Nations by: Mr. Lakhdar Brahimi, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan
Description
This agreement sets out terms for the transfer of power to an Interim Authority, with several annexes addressing an international security force, the role of the United Nations during the interim period, and a list of request from the parties to the United Nations.

Agreement document
AF_011205_AgreementProvisionalArrangementsinAfghanistan.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
The participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan
...
Noting that these interim arrangements are intended as a first step toward the establishment of a broad-based, gender-sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government

Page 4, III. Interim Administration, A. Composition, 3
The Chairman, the Vice Chairmen and other members of the Interim Administration have been selected by the participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan, as listed in Annex IV to this agreement. The selection has been made on the basis of professional competence and personal integrity from lists submitted by the participants in the UN Talks, with due regard to the ethnic, geographic and religious composition of Afghanistan and to the importance of the participation of women.

Page 6, IV. The Special Independent Commission for the Convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga, 2
...
The Special Independent Commission will ensure that due attention is paid to the representation in the Emergency Loya Jirga of a significant number of women as well as all other segments of the Afghan population.

Page 7, V. Final provisions, 4
The Interim Authority and the Special Independent Commission for the Convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga will ensure the participation of women as well as the equitable representation of all ethnic and religious communities in the Interim Administration and the Emergency Loya Jirga.

Page 12, Annex IV, Composition of the Interim Administration
...
Vice-Chair and Women's Affairs: Dr. Sima Samar

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 12, Annex IV, Composition of the Interim Administration
...
Vice-Chair and Women's Affairs: Dr. Sima Samar
Effective participation
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
The participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan
...
Noting that these interim arrangements are intended as a first step toward the establishment of a broad-based, gender-sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government

Page 4, III. Interim Administration, A. Composition, Article 3
The Chairman, the Vice Chairmen and other members of the Interim Administration have been selected by the participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan, as listed in Annex IV to this agreement. The selection has been made on the basis of professional competence and personal integrity from lists submitted by the participants in the UN Talks, with due regard to the ethnic, geographic and religious composition of Afghanistan and to the importance of the participation of women.

Page 6, IV. The Special Independent Commission for the Convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga, Article 2
...
The Special Independent Commission will ensure that due attention is paid to the representation in the Emergency Loya Jirga of a significant number of women as well as all other segments of the Afghan population.

Page 7, V. Final provisions, Article 4
The Interim Authority and the Special Independent Commission for the Convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga will ensure the participation of women as well as the equitable representation of all ethnic and religious communities in the Interim Administration and the Emergency Loya Jirga.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 12, Annex IV, Composition of the Interim Administration
...
Vice-Chair and Women's Affairs: Dr. Sima Samar
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 12, Annex IV, Composition of the Interim Administration
...
Vice-Chair and Women's Affairs: Dr. Sima Samar
Other
Page 2, Untitled Preamble
The participants in the UN Talks on Afghanistan
...
Noting that these interim arrangements are intended as a first step toward the establishment of a broad-based, gender-sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh