Agreement on the Strengthening of Civilian Power and on the Role of the Armed Forces in a Democratic Society

Country/entity
Guatemala
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Agreement on the Strengthening of Civilian Power and on the Role of the Armed Forces in a Democratic Society
Date
19/09/1996
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Guatemalan Civil War (1960 - 1996)
Civil war broke out in Guatemala when numerous leftist and agrarian groups took up arms in 1960 in face of the repression from the conservative regime of Carlos Castillo Armas. The Armas regime came to power in 1954 following a CIA-backed coup against the leftist government of Jacobo Arbenz. The main rebel umbrella was the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (URNG). During the civil war numerous counts of genocide and mass disappearances occurred. In the late 1980s, when a civilian government came to power, the URNG changed tactics when releasing that they wouldn’t come to power through armed conflict. The war came to an end on December 29, 1996, and since then URNG converted to an official political party.

Guatemalan Civil War (1960 - 1996) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
51: Guatemala peace process
Parties
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUATEMALA:
Gustavo PORRAS CASTEJÓN
Otto PÉREZ MOLINA, Brigadier-General
Raquel ZELAYA ROSALES
Morris Eugenio de LEÓN GIL, Colonel (Infantry)
Richard AITKENHEAD CASTILLO

FOR THE UNIDAD REVOLUCIONARIA NACIONAL GUATEMALTECA:
Commander Rolando MORÁN
Commander Pablo MONSANTO
Commander Gaspar ILÓM
Carlos GONZALES
Third parties
FOR THE UNITED NATIONS:
Jean ARNAULT, Moderator
Description
Provided for strengthening of democratic government. Under a reformed Constitution: Civil Patrols would be abolished; various police units restructured and unified to form the National Civil Police; reform of the Penal Code promoted; operations of private security firms regulated; forced conscription ended and role of army limited to external defence.

Agreement document
GT_960919_AgreementStrengtheningCivilianPower.pdf

Main category
Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER
59. In order to increase opportunities for women to participate in the exercise of civilian power, the Government undertakes to:
(a) Set up nationwide public awareness campaigns and educational programmes with a view to increasing public awareness of women’s right to participate actively and decisively, both in rural areas and in the cities, in the process of strengthening civilian power, fully and equally and without any discrimination;
(b) Ensure that social and political organizations adopt specific policies to enhance and promote the role of women in the process of strengthening civilian power;
(c) Respect, promote, support and institutionalize women’s organizations in rural areas and in the cities;
(d) Ensure that at all times in the exercise of power, women, whether organized or not, are provided with and guaranteed opportunities to participate.

Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER
60. The Parties appreciate the work undertaken at the national level by the various women’s organizations and encourage them to work together to make their contribution to the process of implementing the agreements on a firm and lasting peace, especially those undertakings most directly related to women.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER

59. In order to increase opportunities for women to participate in the exercise of civilian power, the Government undertakes to:

(a) Set up nationwide public awareness campaigns and educational programmes with a view to increasing public awareness of women’s right to participate actively and decisively, both in rural areas and in the cities, in the process of strengthening civilian power, fully and equally and without any discrimination;

(b) Ensure that social and political organizations adopt specific policies to enhance and promote the role of women in the process of strengthening civilian power;

(c) Respect, promote, support and institutionalize women’s organizations in rural areas and in the cities;

(d) Ensure that at all times in the exercise of power, women, whether organized or not, are provided with and guaranteed opportunities to participate.

60. The Parties appreciate the work undertaken at the national level by the various women’s organizations and encourage them to work together to make their contribution to the process of implementing the agreements on a firm and lasting peace, especially those undertakings most directly related to women
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER

59. In order to increase opportunities for women to participate in the exercise of civilian power, the Government undertakes to:

(c) Respect, promote, support and institutionalize women’s organizations in rural areas and in the cities;
Reconciliation and peace
Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER:
60. The Parties appreciate the work undertaken at the national level by the various women’s organizations and encourage them to work together to make their contribution to the process of implementing the agreements on a firm and lasting peace, especially those undertakings most directly related to women.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER:

59. In order to increase opportunities for women to participate in the exercise of civilian power, the Government undertakes to:
(a) Set up nationwide public awareness campaigns and educational programmes with a view to increasing public awareness of women’s right to participate actively and decisively, both in rural areas and in the cities, in the process of strengthening civilian power, fully and equally and without any discrimination;
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 19, VI. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN STRENGTHENING CIVILIAN POWER
60. The Parties appreciate the work undertaken at the national level by the various women’s organizations and encourage them to work together to make their contribution to the process of implementing the agreements on a firm and lasting peace, especially those undertakings most directly related to women
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh