Agreement Embodying a Convention on Governance between the Forces for Democratic Change and the Political Parties of the Opposition

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Agreement Embodying a Convention on Governance between the Forces for Democratic Change and the Political Parties of the Opposition
Date
10/09/1994
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Confidence building measure)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
19: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
Political Parties signing the Coventions:
UPRONA (Signed) Charles MUKASI, President; PP (Signed) Shedrack NIYONKURU, President; FRODEBU (Signed), Jean-Marie NGENDAHAYO, for the President; RPB (Signed) Ernest KABUSHEMEYE, President; ANADDE (Signed) Ignace BANKAMWABO, President; PL (Signed) Gaëtan NIKOBAMYE, President; PSD (Signed) Vincent NDIKUMASABO, President; INKINZO (Signed) Alfonse RUGAMBARARA, President; PIT (Signed) Nicéphore NDIMURUKUNDO, President

FOR THE GOVERNMENT (Signed) Sylvestre NIBANTUNGANYA; President of the Republic a.i.
(Signed) Anatole KANYENKIKO, Prime Minister
Third parties
INTERNATIONAL OBSERVERS: (Signed) Ahmedou OULD ABDALLAH, Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, (Signed) Léandre BASSOLE, Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the Organization for African Unity

OFFICE OF THE FORUM: (Signed) Monsignor Simon NTAMWANA, (Signed) Monsignor Bernard BUDUDIRA, (Signed) Antoine NIJEMBAZI, (Signed) Vincent KUBWIMANA
Description
The agreement addresses a number of confidence building measure. It provides for the following: TITLE I. GENERAL PROVISIONS; TITLE II. TASKS ENTRUSTED TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC AND TO THE GOVERNMENT; TITLE III. INSTITUTIONS; TITLE IV. MECHANISMS TO MONITOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION; TITLE V. FINAL PROVISIONS.

Agreement document
BI_940910_AgreementEmbodyingConventionOnGovernance.pdf

Main category
Page 9-10, TITLE III. INSTITUTIONS, Chapter IV: The Government, Article 32:
During the period covered by this Convention, the Government shall have the following portfolios:
...
16. Ministry of Human Rights, Social Services and the Advancement of Women

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Institutions for women
Page 10, Chapter IV, The Government, Article 32:
During the period covered by this Convention, the Government shall have the following portfolios:
...
16. Ministry of Human Rights, Social Services and the Advancement of Women
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

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