Ceasefire Agreement (Lusaka Agreement)

Country/entity
Democratic Republic of Congo
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Ceasefire Agreement (Lusaka Agreement)
Date
10/07/1999
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Congo Civil Wars (1996 - )
The overthrow of the long-term dictator Mobutu Sese Seko by a rebel Tutsi army backed by Uganda and Rwanda in 1997 acted as a catalyst for a war with regional dimensions, mainly fought in the eastern Kivu provinces. The conflict escalated in 1998, when President Laurent Kabila, then backed by Zimbabwean and Angolan troops, ordered Rwanda and Uganda to leave. After Kabila’s assassination in 2001, his son Joseph took over the presidency and won in the 2006 democratic elections.

In the eastern provinces, Tutsi-led militias, mainly organised in the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), fought the remnants of the Rwandan Hutu force FDLR, with further involvement of Rwandan and Ugandan troops. Other regionally operating militia groups, like the Lord’s Resistance Army from Northern Uganda, the so-called Mai Mai groups or short-lived guerrilla outfits like the March 23 Movement (M23) further contributed, and still contribute, to the complexity of the situation in eastern DRC.

Congo Civil Wars (1996 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
31: DRC: Second Congo war process
Parties
The Republic of Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, The Republic of Namibia, The Republic of Rwanda, The Republic of Uganda, The Republic of Zimbabwe. Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (signed on 01/08/1999).

Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD) (signed on 31/08/1999)
Third parties
AS WITNESSES:

The Republic of Zambia, the Organization for African Unity (OAU), the United Nations and the Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Description
Provided for cessation of hostilities. Parties expressed their commitment to addressing security concerns of DRC and neighbouring countries and to the exchange of prisoners of war and release of other detainees. Provision was also made for the facilitation of humanitarian assistance; a UN peacekeeping force; a Joint Military Commission; the final withdrawal of foreign forces; re-establishment of state administration and open dialogue; formation of a national, integrated army; and a mechanism for disarmament and measures to facilitate repatriation of militias. Reaffirmed the sovereignty and territorial integrity of DRC and acceptance of the idea of equal rights for all citizens. Annexes gave further details on the implementation of various parts of the agreement and provided a timetable for implementation. Cessation of hostilities within 24 hs of signing the Agreement; agreed terms for inter-Congolese political negotiations; agreed calender for implementation.

Agreement document
CD_990710_LusakaAgreement.pdf

Main category
Page 4-5, ARTICLE I, THE CEASE-FIRE
2. The cease-fire shall mean:
... c. all acts of violence against the civilian population by respecting and protection human rights. The acts of violence include summary executions, torture, harassment, detention and execution of civilians based on their ethnic origin; propaganda, inciting ethnic and tribal hatred; arming civilians; recruitment and use of child soldiers; sexual violence; training and use of terrorists; massacres, downing of civilian aircraft; and bombing the civilian populations:

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 4-5, ARTICLE I, THE CEASE-FIRE 2. The cease-fire shall mean: ... c. all acts of violence against the civilian population by respecting and protection human rights. The acts of violence include summary executions, torture, harassment, detention and execution of civilians based on their ethnic origin; propaganda, inciting ethnic and tribal hatred; arming civilians; recruitment and use of child soldiers; sexual violence; training and use of terrorists; massacres, downing of civilian aircraft; and bombing the civilian populations:
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 4, ARTICLE I, THE CEASE-FIRE: 3. The Ceasefire shall entail the cessation of:
...c. all acts of violence against the civilian population by respecting and protection human rights. The acts of violence include summary executions, torture, harassment, detention and execution of civilians based on their ethnic origin; propaganda, inciting ethnic and tribal hatred; arming civilians; recruitment and use of child soldiers; sexual violence; training and use of terrorists; massacres, downing of civilian aircraft; and bombing the civilian populations;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh