Ceasefire Agreement between the Transitional Government of Burundi and the Conseil National pour la Defence de la Democratie-Forces pour la Defense de la Democratie

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Ceasefire Agreement between the Transitional Government of Burundi and the Conseil National pour la Defence de la Democratie-Forces pour la Defense de la Democratie
Date
02/12/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
19: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
Signatories:
- For the Transitional Government of Burundi: (Signed) Pierre Buyoya
President of the Republic of Burundi
- For CNDD-FDD:
(Signed) Pierre Nkurunziza Legal representative
Third parties
Guarantors:
- Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President of the Republic of Uganda (Chairman of the Regional Initiative)

Witnesses:
- Benjamin Mkapa, President of the United Republic of Tanzania (Vice-Chairman of the Regional Initiative)
- Ambassador Bah, Special Representative of the African Union in Burundi
- Ambassador Dinka, Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General in Burundi
- Deputy President Zuma Facilitator of the Burundi peace process
Description
The Agreement delineates the different stages of the ceasefire including disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration, restructuring of the security sector and establishing a new defence and security force for Burundi.

Agreement document
BI_021202_CeasefireAgreementBetweenTransitionalGovernment-CNDDFDD.pdf

Main category
Page 2-3, Article II:
1.7 The cessation of all acts of violence against the population, any act of vengeance, summary executions, torture, harassment, detention or persecution of civilians based on their ethnic origin, religious beliefs or political affiliation, arming of civilians, use of child soldiers, sexual violence and sponsoring and encouraging terrorists or genocidal ideologies;

Page 10, E. Definitions:
Ceasifire means:
2.1.6. The cessation of all acts of violence against the population, any act of vengeance, summary executions, torture, harassment, detention or persecution of civilians based on their ethnic origin, religious beliefs or political affiliation, arming of civilians, use of child soldiers, sexual violence and sponsoring and encouraging terrorists or genocidal ideologies;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 2-3, Article II: 1.7
The cessation of all acts of violence against the population, any act of vengeance, summary executions, torture, harassment, detention or persecution of civilians based on their ethnic origin, religious beliefs or political affiliation, arming of civilians, use of child soldiers, sexual violence and sponsoring and encouraging terrorists or genocidal ideologies

Page 10, E. Definitions: Ceasefire means: 2.1.6.
The cessation of all acts of violence against the population, any act of vengeance, summary executions, torture, harassment, detention or persecution of civilians based on their ethnic origin, religious beliefs or political affiliation, arming of civilians, use of child soldiers, sexual violence and sponsoring and encouraging terrorists or genocidal ideologies;
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh