Peace Agreement between the Government of Liberia, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), the Movement of Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) and the Political Parties (Accra Agreement)

Country/entity
Liberia
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Peace Agreement between the Government of Liberia, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), the Movement of Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) and the Political Parties (Accra Agreement)
Date
18/08/2003
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Liberian Civil Wars (1989 - 1997) (1999 - 2005)
In 1989, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) attacked border posts as part of a campaign to oust the dictatorship of Samuel Doe. This triggered a violent civil war that by 1995 had killed around 150,000 and displaced an estimated 850,000 people. The outbreak of war is attributed to the domestic socio-economic and political environment in the country of the 1980s, such as poverty, discrimination and repression. However, its sustenance is also related to past discrimination against indigenous Liberians by ‘Americo-Liberians’, and deep ethnic divisions that resulted.

Peace negotiations began in 1992 and completed by 1997. However, the peace lasted only a short period and in 1999 there was renewed fighting against the elected president, Charles Taylor. The Guinea-backed organisation, Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), together with the armed Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) controlled two thirds of the country by 2003 and besieged the capital Monrovia, forcing Charles Taylor into exile in Nigeria. In August that same year, the conflict parties signed the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement and in 2005 new general elections were held.

Liberian Civil Wars (1989 - 1997) (1999 - 2005) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
75: Liberia peace process
Parties
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA (GOL)
FOR LIBERIANS UNITED FOR RECONCILIATION & DEMOCRACY (LURD)
FOR THE MOVEMENT FOR DEMOCRACY IN LIBERIA (MODEL)
FOR NATIONAL PATRIOTIC PARTY
FOR UNITY PARTY
FOR LIBERIAN PEOPLE'S PARTY
FOR NATIONAL REFORMATION PARTY
FOR LABOR PARTY
FOR LIBERIA UNIFICATION PARTY
FOR LIBERIAN ACTION PARTY
FOR PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC PARTY
FOR NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY
FOR FREE DEMOCRATIC PARTY
FOR REFORMATION ALLIANCE PARTY
FOR ALL-LIBERIAN COALITION PARTY
FOR TRUE WHIG PARTY
FOR UNITED PEOPLE'S PARTY
FOR LIBERIA NATIONAL UNION
FOR EQUAL RIGHTS PARTY
FOR PROGRESSIVE PEOPLES PARTY
FOR NEW DEAL MOVEMENT

Third parties
AS WITNESSES:
FOR INTER-RELIGIOUS COUNCIL FOR LIBERIA (IRCL)
FOR THE MANO RIVER WOMEN PEACE NETWORK (MARWOPNET)
FOR LIBERIAN BAR ASSOCIATION
FOR LIBERIANS IN DIASPORA
FOR LIBERIA LEADERSHIP FORUM
FOR CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS IN LIBERIA
THE MEDIATOR FOR UNITED NATIONS
FOR ECOWAS
FOR THE AFRICAN UNION
FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION, CO-CHAIR OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONTACT GROUP ON LIBERIA
FOR THE REPUBLIC OF GHANA, CO-CHAIR OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONTACT GROUP ON LIBERIA
Description
A comprehensive peace agreement between the Government of Liberia, LURD, and MODEL which builds on the Accra Agreement of June 2003. The agreement includes provisions for a continued ceasefire, modalities of securing peace, DDR, electoral reform, governance reform, transitional justice mechanisms, human rights, and refugees.

Agreement document
LR_030818_Peace Agreement btwn GovtLiberia, LURD, MODEL and the Political Parties.pdf

Main category
Page 13, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES. ARTICLE XVI ESTABLISHMENT OF A GOVERNANCE REFORM COMMISSION: 3. The Structure of the Commission shall be as follows:
a. The Commission shall be established as an independent Commission with seven (7) permanent members appointed by the Chairman and confirmed by the NTLA, from a list provided by civil society organisations. It shall have a chairperson who must be from the civil society. Its membership shall include women.
b. The members must have experience in one or more of the following: Public Sector Management, Corporate Law, Finance and Auditing Regulations, Trade Policies and NGO activities. They must be men and women of known integrity with national and/or international experience.

Page 14, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XVIII ELECTORAL REFORM: b. Appointments to the NEC shall be made by the Chairman with the advice and consent of the NTLA within three months from the entry into force of this Agreement. It shall be composed of men and women of integrity.

Page 16, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XXIV THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (NTLA): 3. The NTLA shall have a maximum of Seventy-six (76) members who shall come from the following entities:.
...b. The present Government of Liberia, the LURD, MODEL, the Political Parties, Civil Society and Interest Groups including the National Bar Association, the Liberian Business Organisations, Women Organizations, Trade Unions, Teachers Union, Refugees, the Liberians in the Diaspora/America and the Youth.

Page 18, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XXVII THE JUDICIARY: 3. Under the NTGL, all new judicial appointments shall be made by the Chairman of the NTGL and approved by the NTLA. Nominations for such judicial appointments shall be based on a shortlist of candidates for each position recommended by the National Bar Association, including the female lawyers.

Page 19, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XXVIII NATIONAL BALANCE: The Parties shall reflect national and gender balance in all elective and non-elective appointments within the NTGL.

Page 20, PART NINE POST-CONFLICT REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION, ARTICLE XXXI VULNERABLE GROUPS: 1a. The NTGL shall accord particular attention to the issue of the rehabilitation of vulnerable groups or war victims (children, women, the elderly and the disabled) within Liberia, who have been severely affected by the conflict in Liberia.

Page 20, PART NINE POST-CONFLICT REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION, ARTICLE XXXI VULNERABLE GROUPS: 3. The NTGL, in formulating and implementing programs for national rehabilitation, reconstruction and development, for the moral, social and physical reconstruction of Liberia in the post-conflict period, shall ensure that the needs and potentials of the war victims are taken into account and that gender balance is maintained in apportioning responsibilities for program implementation.

Page 22, PART ELEVEN, ARTICLE XXXVII ENTRY INTO FORCE: The present Peace Agreement shall enter into force immediately upon its signature by the Parties. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the duly authorized representatives of the Parties have signed this Agreement. AS WITNESSES:
...FOR THE MANO RIVER WOMEN PEACE NETWORK (MARWOPNET)

Page 36, Annex 4, Allocation of Cabinet Positions, Public Corporations and Autonomus Agencies/Commission Under the NTGL: 3. The functioning Ministries are as follows:
...vi. Ministry of Gender and Development

Page 37, Annex 4, Allocation of Cabinet Positions, Public Corporations and Autonomus Agencies/Commission Under the NTGL: 5. The following Ministries shall be allocated to the Political Parties and the Civil Society:
...Ministry of Gender and Development;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 13, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES. ARTICLE XVI ESTABLISHMENT OF A GOVERNANCE REFORM COMMISSION:
3. The Structure of the Commission shall be as follows:
a. The Commission shall be established as an independent Commission with seven (7) permanent members appointed by the Chairman and confirmed by the NTLA, from a list provided by civil society organisations. It shall have a chairperson who must be from the civil society. Its membership shall include women.
b. The members must have experience in one or more of the following: Public Sector Management, Corporate Law, Finance and Auditing Regulations, Trade Policies and NGO activities. They must be men and women of known integrity with national and/or international experience.


ARTICLE XVIII, ELECTORAL REFORM
3. The Structure of the Commission shall be as follows;
a. The Commission shall be established as an independent Commission with seven (7) permanent members appointed by the Chairman and confirmed by the NTLA, from a list provided by civil society organisations. It shall have a chairperson who must be from the civil society. Its membership shall include women.
b. The members must have experience in one or more of the following: Public Sector Management, Corporate Law, Finance and Auditing Regulations, Trade Policies and NGO activities. They must be men and women of known integrity with national and/or international experience.
Effective participation
Page 14, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XVIII ELECTORAL REFORM:
... b. Appointments to the NEC shall be made by the Chairman with the advice and consent of the NTLA within three months from the entry into force of this Agreement. It shall be composed of men and women of integrity.

Page 16, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XXIV THE NATIONAL TRANSITIONAL LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (NTLA):
3. The NTLA shall have a maximum of Seventy-six (76) members who shall come from the following entities:.
...b. The present Government of Liberia, the LURD, MODEL, the Political Parties, Civil Society and Interest Groups including the National Bar Association, the Liberian Business Organisations, Women Organizations, Trade Unions, Teachers Union, Refugees, the Liberians in the Diaspora/America and the Youth.

Page 19, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XXVIII NATIONAL BALANCE:
The Parties shall reflect national and gender balance in all elective and non-elective appointments within the NTGL.

Page 20, PART NINE POST-CONFLICT REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION, ARTICLE XXXI VULNERABLE GROUPS:
3. The NTGL, in formulating and implementing programs for national rehabilitation, reconstruction and development, for the moral, social and physical reconstruction of Liberia in the post-conflict period, shall ensure that the needs and potentials of the war victims are taken into account and that gender balance is maintained in apportioning responsibilities for program implementation.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Institutions for women
Page 36, Annex 4, Allocation of Cabinet Positions, Public Corporations and Autonomus Agencies/Commission Under the NTGL:
3. The functioning Ministries are as follows:
...vi. Ministry of Gender and Development

Page 37, Annex 4, Allocation of Cabinet Positions, Public Corporations and Autonomus Agencies/Commission Under the NTGL: 5. The following Ministries shall be allocated to the Political Parties and the Civil Society:
...Ministry of Gender and Development;
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Part 9, ARTICLE XXXI, VULNERABLE GROUPS
l.a. The NTGL shall accord particular attention to the issue of the rehabilitation of vulnerable groups or war victims (children, women, the elderly and the disabled) within Liberia, who have been severely affected by the conflict in Liberia.
... 3. The NTGL, in formulating and implementing programs for national rehabilitation, reconstruction and development, for the moral, social and physical reconstruction of Liberia in the post-conflict period, shall ensure that the needs and potentials of the war victims are taken into account and that gender balance is maintained in apportioning responsibilities for program implementation.
Institutional reform
Judiciary, judicial reform
Page 18, PART EIGHT POLITICAL ISSUES, ARTICLE XXVII THE JUDICIARY: 3. Under the NTGL, all new judicial appointments shall be made by the Chairman of the NTGL and approved by the NTLA. Nominations for such judicial appointments shall be based on a shortlist of candidates for each position recommended by the National Bar Association, including the female lawyers.
Development
Rehabilitation and reconstruction
Page 20, PART NINE POST-CONFLICT REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION, ARTICLE XXXI VULNERABLE GROUPS:
1a. The NTGL shall accord particular attention to the issue of the rehabilitation of vulnerable groups or war victims (children, women, the elderly and the disabled) within Liberia, who have been severely affected by the conflict in Liberia.
... 3. The NTGL, in formulating and implementing programs for national rehabilitation, reconstruction and development, for the moral, social and physical reconstruction of Liberia in the post-conflict period, shall ensure that the needs and potentials of the war victims are taken into account and that gender balance is maintained in apportioning responsibilities for program implementation.
Implementation
Signing or witnessing agreement
Page 22, PART ELEVEN, ARTICLE XXXVII ENTRY INTO FORCE: The present Peace Agreement shall enter into force immediately upon its signature by the Parties. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the duly authorized representatives of the Parties have signed this Agreement. AS WITNESSES:
...FOR THE MANO RIVER WOMEN PEACE NETWORK (MARWOPNET)
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh