Dar-Es-Salaam Declaration on Peace, Security, Democracy and Development in the Great Lakes Region

Country/entity
Angola
Burundi
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of Congo
Kenya
Republic of Congo
Rwanda
Sudan
Tanzania
Uganda
Zambia
(African Great Lakes)
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Dar-Es-Salaam Declaration on Peace, Security, Democracy and Development in the Great Lakes Region
Date
20/11/2004
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (African Great Lakes Process (2004 - 2013)
The African Great Lakes process attempted to use a regional approach to address a set of inter-linked conflicts notably in Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and Uganda.

African Great Lakes Process (2004 - 2013) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
6: African Great Lakes: Regional Process
Parties
H.E. JOSE EDUARDO DOS SANTOS, President of the Republic of Angola; H.E. DOMITIEN NDAYIZEYE, President of the Republic of Burundi; H.E. FRANCOIS BOZIZE, President of the Republic of the Central African Republic; H.E DENIS SASSOU NGUESSO, President of the Republic of Congo; H.E. JOSEPH KABILI, President of the Republic of the Democratic Republic of Congo; H.E. MWAI KIBAKI, President of the Republic of Kenya; H.E. PAUBL KAGAMGE, President of the Republic of Rawanda; H.E OMAR HASSAN AL-BASHIR, President of the Republic of the Sudan; H.E. BENJAMIN WILLIAM MKAPA, President of the Republic of Tanzania; H.E. YOWRI KAGUTA MOUSEVENI, President of the Republic of Uganda; H.E. LEVY MWANAWASA, President of the Republic of Zambia
Third parties
Witnesses: H.E. THABO MBEKI, President of the Republic of South Africa; H.E. OMAR BONGO ONDIMBA, President of the Republic of Gabonese Republic; H.E BINGU WA MUTHARIKA, President of the Republic of Malawi; H.E. JOAQUIM CHISSANO, President of the Republic of Mozambique; H.E. SAM NUJOMA, President of the Republic of Namibia; H.E. OLUSEGUN OBASANJO, President of the Republic of Nigeria and current Chairperson of Africa Union; H.E. ROBERT G. MUGABE, President of the Republic of Zimbabwe; H.E. KOFI ANNAN, Secretary-General of the United Nations; H.E. ALPHA OUMAR KONARE, Chairperson of the African Union Commission
Description
The agreement is a regional agreement aimed at peace and security in the Great Lakes Region. The agreement is largely rhetorical but documents broad commitments to democracy, good governance and human rights, as well as political participation and gender equality. The parties commit themselves to cooperate in supporting economic development, especially through regional integration. They also commit to cooperating in supporting economic development, especially through regional integration; and to addressing humanitarian problems in the region, especially concerning IDPs, land-mines, child soldiers and HIV/AIDS. A regional Inter-ministerial Committee is set up, in order to prepare a second summit of the International Conference of the Great Lakes Region, scheduled in 2005.

Agreement document
AO_BI_CF_CD_KE_CG_RW_SD_TZ_UG_ZM_041120_Dar Es Salaam Declaration.pdf

Main category
Page 2-3, I. PREAMBLE:
... 2. Deeply concerned about the endemic conflicts and persistent insecurity caused or aggravated by, inter alia, economic stagnation and poverty aggravation, mistrust and suspicion between governments, massive violations of human rights and other policies of exclusion and marginalisation, gender inequality, use of violence for conquering and conserving power, impunity of crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, proliferation of armed groups, organized crime and illegal exploitation of natural resources; recognising the efforts undertaken at national, regional and international level to resolve these endemic problems;
... 6. Deeply concerned about the humanitarian and social consequences of crises and armed conflicts especially violations of the human rights of women, children, the elderly, the disabled and youth, the recruitment and use of child soldiers in armed conflicts, the sexual violence and exploitation of girls and women and their use as sexual slaves, the forced displacement of populations, the vulnerability of communities living at the borders, the destruction of basic services, especially the health and education infrastructures, the food insecurity and subsequent malnutrition of populations, the degradation of the eco-system and human settlements, and the strain on the allocation of national resources between the security and social sectors;
... 11. Considering that the discrimination against women, particularly at decision- making levels, in the areas of peace and security, democracy and political, economic and social governance calls for a deliberate, immediate and sustainable redress;


Page 4, III. PRIORITY POLICY OPTIONS AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES PEACE and SECURITY
Commit ourselves to:
... 25. Adopt and implement, in an effective and sustainable way, national disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes (DDR) and, where applicable, ensure regional coordination for repatriation and resettlement components (DDRRR), taking into account the special needs of former child soldiers and female ex- combatants ;
... 27. Protect vulnerable groups, women, children, the elderly, the disabled and the sick, the refugees and displaced persons, involving them in our peace efforts, addressing issues of sexual violence, implementing a Regional Strategy against the HIV/AIDS pandemic as a peace and security issue, in conformity with the relevant regional and international political and legal mechanisms, including Resolutions 1308 and 1325 of the United Nations Security Council, creating conditions for protecting the youth from all sorts of manipulation, particularly during armed conflicts;

Page 5-6, DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
33. Promote effective participation of the different socioeconomic actors, specifically the private sector, civil society, women and youth in the consolidation of democracy and good governance, particularly through the promotion of good governance at local level, and the emergence of independent and responsible media;
... 35. Adopt deliberate policies and mechanisms for promoting gender equality at all levels and in all sectors, at the national and regional levels, in accordance with the Millennium Declaration, the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, the Beijing Platform for Action and the African Union’s Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa;

Page 7, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION
48. Formulate national and regional policies that promote the employment of women and youth and develop appropriate regional financing mechanisms so as to give them more access to micro-finance institutions, investment opportunities in trade and control of factors of production such as land, property and capital;

Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES
Commit ourselves to:
58. Respect and use the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons as proposed by the UN Secretariat, harmonise all the relevant pieces of legislation and define a national and regional framework for the monitoring and follow-up of the standards contained therein and which relate to the access and protection of disaster victims, internally displaced persons, women and children who are victims of conflicts;
... 67. Set up regional mechanisms, including relevant traditional support mechanisms, aimed at providing psychosocial support, medical and legal assistance to women and girls who are victims of rape as well as other acts of sexual violence and exploitation;

Page 10, IV. FOLLOW-UP MECHANISM
76. Set up a Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee, mandated to prepare selected, concrete, achievable and measurable draft Protocols and programmes of action together with specific short, medium and long-term objectives; the Committee is assisted by the Regional Preparatory Committee, enhanced with representatives of the Civil Society, women, youth and other reputable experts with at least one third of women representatives; the Draft Protocols and Programmes of Action will be submitted to the Second Summit and will form with this Declaration, the Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes Region;
77. Direct the Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee to take into account the recommendations emanating from the meetings of the Regional Preparatory Committee, other special regional meetings as well as meetings related to the preparation of the Conference, including the First Ladies Forum;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 5-6, DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
33. Promote effective participation of the different socioeconomic actors, specifically the private sector, civil society, women and youth in the consolidation of democracy and good governance, particularly through the promotion of good governance at local level, and the emergence of independent and responsible media;
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 2, I. PREAMBLE:
... 2. Deeply concerned about the endemic conflicts and persistent insecurity caused or aggravated by, inter alia, economic stagnation and poverty aggravation, mistrust and suspicion between governments, massive violations of human rights and other policies of exclusion and marginalisation, gender inequality, use of violence for conquering and conserving power, impunity of crimes of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, proliferation of armed groups, organized crime and illegal exploitation of natural resources; recognising the efforts undertaken at national, regional and international level to resolve these endemic problems;

Page 3, I. PREAMBLE:
. . . 11. Considering that the discrimination against women, particularly at decision-making levels, in the areas of peace and security, democracy and political, economic and social governance calls for a deliberate, immediate and sustainable redress;

Page 6, DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
... 35. Adopt deliberate policies and mechanisms for promoting gender equality at all levels and in all sectors, at the national and regional levels, in accordance with the Millennium Declaration, the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, the Beijing Platform for Action and the African Union’s Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa;
Social equality
Page 7, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION
48. Formulate national and regional policies that promote the employment of women and youth and develop appropriate regional financing mechanisms so as to give them more access to micro-finance institutions, investment opportunities in trade and control of factors of production such as land, property and capital;
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES
Commit ourselves to:
58. Respect and use the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons as proposed by the UN Secretariat, harmonise all the relevant pieces of legislation and define a national and regional framework for the monitoring and follow-up of the standards contained therein and which relate to the access and protection of disaster victims, internally displaced persons, women and children who are victims of conflicts;
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 2-3, I. PREAMBLE:
... 6. Deeply concerned about the humanitarian and social consequences of crises and armed conflicts especially violations of the human rights of women, children, the elderly, the disabled and youth, the recruitment and use of child soldiers in armed conflicts, the sexual violence and exploitation of girls and women and their use as sexual slaves, the forced displacement of populations, the vulnerability of communities living at the borders, the destruction of basic services, especially the health and education infrastructures, the food insecurity and subsequent malnutrition of populations, the degradation of the eco-system and human settlements, and the strain on the allocation of national resources between the security and social sectors;

Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES Commit ourselves to: 58. Respect and use the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons as proposed by the UN Secretariat, harmonise all the relevant pieces of legislation and define a national and regional framework for the monitoring and follow-up of the standards contained therein and which relate to the access and protection of disaster victims, internally displaced persons, women and children who are victims of conflicts;
International human rights standards
Page 6, DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE
...
35. Adopt deliberate policies and mechanisms for promoting gender equality at all levels and in all sectors, at the national and regional levels, in accordance with the Millennium Declaration, the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000), the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, the Beijing Platform for Action and the African Union’s Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa;

Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES
Commit ourselves to:
...
58. Respect and use the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons as proposed by the UN Secretariat, harmonise all the relevant pieces of legislation and define a national and regional framework for the monitoring and follow-up of the standards contained therein and which relate to the access and protection of disaster victims, internally displaced persons, women and children who are victims of conflicts;
References to UNSC 1325 itself
Page 4, III. PRIORITY POLICY OPTIONS AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES PEACE and SECURITY
Commit ourselves to:
...
27. Protect vulnerable groups, women, children, the elderly, the disabled and the sick, the refugees and displaced persons, involving them in our peace efforts, addressing issues of sexual violence, implementing a Regional Strategy against the HIV/AIDS pandemic as a peace and security issue, in conformity with the relevant regional and international political and legal mechanisms, including Resolutions 1308 and 1325 of the United Nations Security Council, creating conditions for protecting the youth from all sorts of manipulation, particularly during armed conflicts;
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 10, IV. FOLLOW-UP MECHANISM
77. Direct the Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee to take into account the recommendations emanating from the meetings of the Regional Preparatory Committee, other special regional meetings as well as meetings related to the preparation of the Conference, including the First Ladies Forum;
Violence against women
Sexual violence
Page 2-3, I. PREAMBLE:
...
6. Deeply concerned about the humanitarian and social consequences of crises and armed conflicts especially violations of the human rights of women, children, the elderly, the disabled and youth, the recruitment and use of child soldiers in armed conflicts, the sexual violence and exploitation of girls and women and their use as sexual slaves, the forced displacement of populations, the vulnerability of communities living at the borders, the destruction of basic services, especially the health and education infrastructures, the food insecurity and subsequent malnutrition of populations, the degradation of the eco-system and human settlements, and the strain on the allocation of national resources between the security and social sectors;

Page 4, III. PRIORITY POLICY OPTIONS AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES PEACE and SECURITY
Commit ourselves to:
...
27. Protect vulnerable groups, women, children, the elderly, the disabled and the sick, the refugees and displaced persons, involving them in our peace efforts, addressing issues of sexual violence, implementing a Regional Strategy against the HIV/AIDS pandemic as a peace and security issue, in conformity with the relevant regional and international political and legal mechanisms, including Resolutions 1308 and 1325 of the United Nations Security Council, creating conditions for protecting the youth from all sorts of manipulation, particularly during armed conflicts;

Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES
Commit ourselves to:
...
67. Set up regional mechanisms, including relevant traditional support mechanisms, aimed at providing psychosocial support, medical and legal assistance to women and girls who are victims of rape as well as other acts of sexual violence and exploitation;
Protection (general)
Page 4, III. PRIORITY POLICY OPTIONS AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES PEACE and SECURITY Commit ourselves to:
... 27. Protect vulnerable groups, women, children, the elderly, the disabled and the sick, the refugees and displaced persons, involving them in our peace efforts, addressing issues of sexual violence, implementing a Regional Strategy against the HIV/AIDS pandemic as a peace and security issue, in conformity with the relevant regional and international political and legal mechanisms, including Resolutions 1308 and 1325 of the United Nations Security Council, creating conditions for protecting the youth from all sorts of manipulation, particularly during armed conflicts;
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES
Commit ourselves to:
...
58. Respect and use the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons as proposed by the UN Secretariat, harmonise all the relevant pieces of legislation and define a national and regional framework for the monitoring and follow-up of the standards contained therein and which relate to the access and protection of disaster victims, internally displaced persons, women and children who are victims of conflicts;
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 4, III. PRIORITY POLICY OPTIONS AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES PEACE and SECURITY
Commit ourselves to:
...
25. Adopt and implement, in an effective and sustainable way, national disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes (DDR) and, where applicable, ensure regional coordination for repatriation and resettlement components (DDRRR), taking into account the special needs of former child soldiers and female ex- combatants;
Development
Health (general)
Page 2-3, I. PREAMBLE:
... 6. Deeply concerned about the humanitarian and social consequences of crises and armed conflicts especially violations of the human rights of women, children, the elderly, the disabled and youth, the recruitment and use of child soldiers in armed conflicts, the sexual violence and exploitation of girls and women and their use as sexual slaves, the forced displacement of populations, the vulnerability of communities living at the borders, the destruction of basic services, especially the health and education infrastructures, the food insecurity and subsequent malnutrition of populations, the degradation of the eco-system and human settlements, and the strain on the allocation of national resources between the security and social sectors;

Page 8-9, HUMANITARIAN AND SOCIAL ISSUES Commit ourselves to: 58. Respect and use the Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons as proposed by the UN Secretariat, harmonise all the relevant pieces of legislation and define a national and regional framework for the monitoring and follow-up of the standards contained therein and which relate to the access and protection of disaster victims, internally displaced persons, women and children who are victims of conflicts; ... 67. Set up regional mechanisms, including relevant traditional support mechanisms, aimed at providing psychosocial support, medical and legal assistance to women and girls who are victims of rape as well as other acts of sexual violence and exploitation;
Implementation
Women's role and consideration in implementation of the agreement
Page 10, IV. FOLLOW-UP MECHANISM
76. Set up a Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee, mandated to prepare selected, concrete, achievable and measurable draft Protocols and programmes of action together with specific short, medium and long-term objectives; the Committee is assisted by the Regional Preparatory Committee, enhanced with representatives of the Civil Society, women, youth and other reputable experts with at least one third of women representatives; the Draft Protocols and Programmes of Action will be submitted to the Second Summit and will form with this Declaration, the Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes Region;
Other
Page 10, IV. FOLLOW-UP MECHANISM
...
77. Direct the Regional Inter-Ministerial Committee to take into account the recommendations emanating from the meetings of the Regional Preparatory Committee, other special regional meetings as well as meetings related to the preparation of the Conference, including the First Ladies Forum;
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh