Darfur Peace Agreement

Country/entity
Sudan
Darfur
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Darfur Peace Agreement
Date
05/05/2006
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
24: Darfur-Sudan peace process
Parties
For the Government of Sudan: Dr. Magzoub Al Khalifa, Chairman of the Sudan Government Delegation;
For the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A): Minni Arkou Minawi, Chairman;
Third parties
Witnessed by:
Dr. Salim Ahmed Salim, AU Special Envoy and Chief Mediator;
His Excellency, President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, Current Chairman of the African Union;
His Excellency, President Olusegun Obasanjo, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria;
His Excellency, Professor Alpha Oumar Konare, Chairperson of the African Union Commission;
Dr. Ali Treki, Representative of the Leader of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya;
Mr. Robert Zoellick, Deputy Secretary of State, United States of America;
Mr. Hilary Benn, Secretary of State for International Development, United Kingdom;
His Excellency, Jan Pronk, Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in the Sudan;
Pekka Haavisto, European Union;
Counsellor Zeid Al Sabban, League of Arab States;
Ambassador Ahmed A. Haggag, Special Envoy of the Arab Republic of Egypt;
Ambassador Allan Rock, Representative of Canada;
Dr. Kjell Hodnebo, Representative of Norway;
Ambassador Henri de Coignac, Special Envoy, France;
Mrs. Agnes Van Ardenne, Minister for Development Cooperation, Netherlands;
Description
Comprehensive agreement covering a wide range of issues. Agreement establishes democratic processes for the people of Darfur to choose their leaders and determine their final status as a region. A popular referendum is envisioned not later than July 2010 to decide whether to establish Darfour as a unitary region or to maintain the status quo of three states. The comprehensive agreement also addresses power sharing, wealth sharing, a final ceasefire and security arrangements, calls for a 'Darfur-Darfus' dialogue to address pending issues and provides implementation modalities. Agreement annexes six prior agreements.

Agreement document
SD_060505_DPA.pdf

Main category
Page 10, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 1
15. The Parties recognize that women are under-represented in government institutions and decision-making structures and that there is need for special measures to ensure women’s equal and effective participation in decision-making at all levels.

Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. (a) Women and men shall enjoy all civil and political rights enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as all economic, social and cultural rights in the International Covenant ratified by the GoS.
(b) Family is the basis of society and shall be protected by the law. Men and women shall enjoy the right to marry and found a family, in accordance with their respective family laws.
(c) The State shall combat harmful customs and traditions, which undermine the dignity and the status of women.
(d) The State shall provide maternity, child care and medical care for pregnant women, children in need, persons with special needs and the elderly, in line with regional and international instruments ratified by the GoS.
...
(f) The State shall provide access to education without discrimination as to religion, race, ethnicity, gender or disability, as well as access to free primary health care and free and compulsory primary education.

Page 13, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
30. (c) The death penalty shall not be executed upon pregnant or lactating women except after two years of lactation.

Page 13, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
38. (c) Every association shall have the right to register and to function as a political party in accordance with the law and in particular if:
(i) its membership is open to all Sudanese irrespective of religion, ethnic origin, gender or place of birth,

Page 20, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 8
69. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure effective representation for Darfurians, including the SLM/A and JEM, as follows:
...
(d) Special effort shall be made to ensure that women are represented in these nominations.

Page 20, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 8
70. In making further appointments provided for in the INC, or in this Agreement, the President shall take appropriate steps to ensure the fair representation of Darfurians including an equitable share for women.

Page 20, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 9
71. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure the representation of Darfurians in the National Assembly, including the SLM/A and JEM. In this regard, not less than a total of 12 seats shall be allocated to nominees of the SLM/A and JEM. It is highly recommended that some of the nominees be women.

Page 22, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 11. The National Civil Service
76.b.
...
ii. Affirmative action on recruitment, training and promotion, including measures to promote gender balance;
...
77.b. Reserve certain posts in the NCS exclusively for qualified women, particularly those from the less developed areas such as Darfur.
78. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women in the civil service.

Page 27, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 17
106. The Parties agree that national economic and social policies, plans and programs shall:
(a) Ensure that the quality of life, dignity and living conditions of all citizens is promoted without discrimination on grounds of gender, race, religion, political affiliation, ethnicity, language or geographic location.

Page 28, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 17
109. The women of Darfur are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors. In addition, women are heads of households particularly among refugees, the internally displaced persons and migrants. Women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the war, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on women and children, especially in relation to their means of livelihood. There is a need, therefore, for a special focus on the specific situation of women and for providing concrete measures to address their concerns, as well as ensuring their equal and effective participation in committees, commissions and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 31, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 18
128. The Parties agree that a system of specific purpose grants shall be developed with a view to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), poverty eradication goals and gender development.

Page 36, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 19
154. (d) The [Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund] shall develop special funding mechanisms to address the specific needs of women. These mechanisms shall cover, but not limited to, creation of investment opportunities, enhancement of productive capacities, provision of credit, production inputs and capacity building for women.

Page 42, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
186. The relevant authorities, with the assistance of the AU and the international community, shall protect the returning displaced persons from all forms of harassment, coercion, informal ‘taxation’ or confiscation of property. In such exercise, special attention to the protection of displaced women from all forms of harassment, exploitation and gender-based violence, is essential.

Page 42, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
187. DRRC shall provide basic food, shelter and access to potable water while displaced persons are en route to areas of return. The DRRC shall make special effort to ensure the full participation of women in the planning and distribution of these basic facilities.

Page 43, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
192. Displaced women and men have equal rights to obtain all necessary documents. Women and girls shall also have documentation issued in their own names. Special effort shall be made to provide documents to orphans.

Page 43, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
195. DRRC and the relevant authorities shall establish restitution procedures, which must be simple, accessible, transparent and enforceable. All aspects of the restitution claims process, including appeals procedures, shall be just, timely, accessible, free of charge, and age and gender sensitive. The procedures shall contain positive measures to ensure that women are able to participate on a fully equal basis in the process.

Page 44, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
202. The membership of the Commission shall comprise persons nominated by the Parties and persons representative of affected communities, leaders of Native Administration. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the effective representation of women in the membership of the Commission. The Commission may engage experts and may act in accordance with their recommendations.

Page 45, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
205. Taking note of the suffering of the individual people of Darfur, and the customary practices of tribal restitution in Darfur, the Commission shall work out principles for appropriate restitution or other compensation. In doing so, the Commission shall take into account, among other considerations:
...
(d) The needs of vulnerable groups such as women and children;

Page 49, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 23
217. The aims of this Chapter are as follows:
...
(c) To ensure that protection of the civilian population is given the highest priority by all parties, particularly the women and children are not subjected to gender-based violence.

Page 51, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 24
226. (e) All acts and forms of gender-based violence.
...
(m) Any recruitment or use of boys and girls under age 18 years by Parties.

Page 52, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 25
229. The Parties:
...
(e) Support the participation of a greater number of women in the mechanisms.

Page 53, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 25
235. AMIS shall increase the number of its local language translators, with special attention to female translators, in order to enhance its capacity to gather information related to the conflict and law enforcement and interact with local communities.

Page 53, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 25
236. AMIS shall not tolerate gender-based violence and abuse of women and children.

Page 57, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
262. Consistent with the existing ceasefire agreements, the Parties reaffirm the following commitments:
...
(e) To provide special protection for women, children, the vulnerable and disabled persons.

Page 59, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
Protection of Women and Children
275. The Parties shall release all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups. UNICEF, UNHCR, and the ICRC shall be called upon to assist in the identification, removal, family unification and reintegration of children associated with armed forces and groups.

Page 59, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
276. The Parties, in coordination with the AMIS Civilian Police, the existing international and national humanitarian coordination mechanisms for assistance in IDP camps and the United Nations (including in consultation with representatives of IDPs) shall ensure that women and children in the camp are protected from all forms of violence.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
277. In areas of GoS control, the GoS Police shall investigate all crimes, including those committed against women and children, and ensure the prosecution of the perpetrators and the protection of the victims. They shall give the AMIS Civilian Police unimpeded access and information to monitor these activities.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
278. AMIS Civilian Police together with GoS Police and Movements’ Police Liaison Officers in their respective areas of control, shall establish separate police counters for the reporting of crimes committed against women, and women police personnel should staff these counters.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
279. A significant number of GoS Police, Movements’ Police Liaison Officers and AMIS Civilian Police officers shall be women; they shall have specialist gender units to work with women and children; and all their investigations and monitoring shall include at least one woman.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
280. One hundred days after the signing of this Agreement, the JHFMU shall evaluate the effectiveness of the security measures presented in the previous sections on IDP camps and protection of women and children.

Page 65, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 27
321. The plans shall include the following:
...
(c) Strategies to deal with the problem of violence against women and children.

Page 73, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 27
369. GoS shall restore personnel and funding of governmental services in areas in which they have been interrupted due to the conflict, including education, health, water, veterinary services, agricultural extension, forestry, road maintenance and posts and telecommunications, with special attention to the specific needs of women. This shall be consistent with the provisions of the Chapter on Wealth Sharing. The Movements shall cooperate in the restoration of such services.

Page 74, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 28
379. The Movements may request non-military logistic support when they have undertaken the following activities to the satisfaction of the AMIS Force Commander:
...
(c) Registered with AMIS their combatants and determined the number, age and gender of the combatants requiring support.

Page 76, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
394. Women shall be fairly represented on the DSAIC and any subsidiary bodies it establishes. These bodies shall develop mechanisms to ensure that their work incorporates appropriate input from women on issues of special concern to women and children.

Page 77, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
400. The integration process shall be designed and undertaken in a manner that contributes to the professionalism, inclusiveness, and capabilities of Sudan’s security institutions, without discrimination on the basis of gender. The integration process shall be completed within sixteen months covering conventional training, but not post basic or upgrade training.

Page 77, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
401. The GoS shall make positions available to former combatants on the basis of a rank structure, and senior positions shall be included as appropriate. Taking into account the availability of accelerated officer training, the TIC shall recommend a specific number of former combatants to fill senior and supporting positions at SAF General Staff HQ, SAF Western Command HQ, the Ministry of Defense, the Directorate of Military Intelligence, and equivalent police HQ on the basis of qualifications, experience, and institutional needs. Special attention shall be paid to the integration of female former combatants.

Page 79, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
416. The ICP shall take into account the special needs of female former combatants.

Page 80, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
428. The demobilization shall include former combatants, including female former combatants.

Page 81, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
438. Specific resources shall be mobilized and set aside to address the special reintegration needs of women, and these resources shall be administered separately by a mechanism capable of effectively performing this function.

Page 82, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
442. The Reintegration Plan shall develop specific programs for former combatants under the age of 18; female former combatants; and disabled former combatants.

Page 82, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
445. Specific programs shall be developed to address the particular reintegration needs of women, especially widows of former combatants.

Page 83, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
447. Reform of selected security institutions shall be in accordance with the following:
...
(e) They shall include women in all ranks and shall have specific sections to address the particular needs of women and children with respect to personal security and law enforcement.

Page 84, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
451. Within 60 days of the signing of this Agreement, the DSAIC shall initiate a comprehensive review of policing in Darfur, with the aim of making specific recommendations to the TDRA to improve the effectiveness and professionalism of the police, in particular their ability to respond to, take into account, and address the special needs of women.

Page 86, CHAPTER FOUR: DARFUR-DARFUR DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION, ARTICLE 31
461. The DDDC shall serve as a mechanism for mobilizing support for this Agreement and implementing it by:
...
e. Bringing other stakeholders into the Darfur peace process with special consideration for active and visible participation by women and the youth.

Page 87, CHAPTER FOUR: DARFUR-DARFUR DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION, ARTICLE 31
467. The Parties agree that women shall be fairly represented on all bodies and committees established in relation to the DDDC.

Page 88, CHAPTER FOUR: DARFUR-DARFUR DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION, ARTICLE 31
475. The Parties shall each nominate members of the Preparatory Committee, who shall play a role in the formulation of the agenda and have a role in selecting Chairs, Committee of Experts and the Secretariat. The Parties are obliged to strive for fair representation of women in their nominations.
...
476. The Parties shall nominate delegates to the DDDC, both as observers and participants as appropriate. Fair representation of women and youth is mandatory.

Page 89, CHAPTER FOUR: DARFUR-DARFUR DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION, ARTICLE 31
484. Issues to be addressed by the DDDC shall include:
(i) Measures to address the special issues and concerns of women.
...
488. The members of the Committee of Experts shall consist principally of Sudanese experts and shall also include as appropriate international experts. Special attention shall be made to include conflict resolution and gender experts.

Page 90, CHAPTER FOUR: DARFUR-DARFUR DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION, ARTICLE 31
494. Representation at the DDDC shall be decided by the Preparatory Committee according to the following guidelines:
...
(d) Adequate and effective representation of women and youth shall be ensured.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 20, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 9
71. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure the representation of Darfurians in the National Assembly, including the SLM/A and JEM. In this regard, not less than a total of 12 seats shall be allocated to nominees of the SLM/A and JEM. It is highly recommended that some of the nominees be women.

Page 87, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 31
467. The Parties agree that women shall be fairly represented on all bodies and committees established in relation to the DDDC.

Page 88, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 31
475. The Parties shall each nominate members of the Preparatory Committee, who shall play a role in the formulation of the agenda and have a role in selecting Chairs, Committee of Experts and the Secretariat. The Parties are obliged to strive for fair representation of women in their nominations.
476. The Parties shall nominate delegates to the DDDC, both as observers and participants as appropriate. Fair representation of women and youth is mandatory.
Effective participation
Page 10, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 1
15. The Parties recognize that women are under-represented in government institutions and decision-making structures and that there is need for special measures to ensure women’s equal and effective participation in decision-making at all levels.

Page 20, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 8
69. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure effective representation for Darfurians, including the SLM/A and JEM, as follows:
(d) Special effort shall be made to ensure that women are represented in these nominations.

Page 20, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 8
... 70. In making further appointments provided for in the INC, or in this Agreement, the President shall take appropriate steps to ensure the fair representation of Darfurians including an equitable share for women.

Page 28, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 17
109. The women of Darfur are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors. In addition, women are heads of households particularly among refugees, the internally displaced persons and migrants. Women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the war, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on women and children, especially in relation to their means of livelihood. There is a need, therefore, for a special focus on the specific situation of women and for providing concrete measures to address their concerns, as well as ensuring their equal and effective participation in committees, commissions and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 42, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
... 187. DRRC shall provide basic food, shelter and access to potable water while displaced persons are en route to areas of return. The DRRC shall make special effort to ensure the full participation of women in the planning and distribution of these basic facilities.

Page 43, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
... 195. DRRC and the relevant authorities shall establish restitution procedures, which must be simple, accessible, transparent and enforceable. All aspects of the restitution claims process, including appeals procedures, shall be just, timely, accessible, free of charge, and age and gender sensitive. The procedures shall contain positive measures to ensure that women are able to participate on a fully equal basis in the process.

Page 44, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
202. The membership of the Commission shall comprise persons nominated by the Parties and persons representative of affected communities, leaders of Native Administration. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the effective representation of women in the membership of the Commission. The Commission may engage experts and may act in accordance with their recommendations.

Page 52, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 25
229. The Parties:
... (e) Support the participation of a greater number of women in the mechanisms.

Page 76, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
394. Women shall be fairly represented on the DSAIC and any subsidiary bodies it establishes. These bodies shall develop mechanisms to ensure that their work incorporates appropriate input from women on issues of special concern to women and children.

Page 86, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 31
461. The DDDC shall serve as a mechanism for mobilizing support for this Agreement and implementing it by:
e. Bringing other stakeholders into the Darfur peace process with special consideration for active and visible participation by women and the youth.

Page 90, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 31
494. Representation at the DDDC shall be decided by the Preparatory Committee according to the following guidelines:
(d) Adequate and effective representation of women and youth shall be ensured.
Other
Page 13, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
38. (c) Every association shall have the right to register and to function as a political party in accordance with the law and in particular if:
(i) its membership is open to all Sudanese irrespective of religion, ethnic origin, gender or place of birth,

Page 53, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 25
235. AMIS shall increase the number of its local language translators, with special attention to female translators, in order to enhance its capacity to gather information related to the conflict and law enforcement and interact with local communities.
Equality
Social equality
Page 27, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 17
106. The Parties agree that national economic and social policies, plans and programs shall:
(a) Ensure that the quality of life, dignity and living conditions of all citizens is promoted without discrimination on grounds of gender, race, religion, political affiliation, ethnicity, language or geographic location.

Page 36, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 19
154. (d) The [Darfur Reconstruction and Development Fund] shall develop special funding mechanisms to address the specific needs of women. These mechanisms shall cover, but not limited to, creation of investment opportunities, enhancement of productive capacities, provision of credit, production inputs and capacity building for women.

Page 73, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 27
369. GoS shall restore personnel and funding of governmental services in areas in which they have been interrupted due to the conflict, including education, health, water, veterinary services, agricultural extension, forestry, road maintenance and posts and telecommunications, with special attention to the specific needs of women. This shall be consistent with the provisions of the Chapter on Wealth Sharing. The Movements shall cooperate in the restoration of such services.
Particular groups of women
Refugee/displaced women
Page 28, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 17
109. The women of Darfur are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors. In addition, women are heads of households particularly among refugees, the internally displaced persons and migrants. Women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the war, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on women and children, especially in relation to their means of livelihood. There is a need, therefore, for a special focus on the specific situation of women and for providing concrete measures to address their concerns, as well as ensuring their equal and effective participation in committees, commissions and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.

Page 42, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
186. The relevant authorities, with the assistance of the AU and the international community, shall protect the returning displaced persons from all forms of harassment, coercion, informal ‘taxation’ or confiscation of property. In such exercise, special attention to the protection of displaced women from all forms of harassment, exploitation and gender-based violence, is essential.

Page 42, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
... 187. DRRC shall provide basic food, shelter and access to potable water while displaced persons are en route to areas of return. The DRRC shall make special effort to ensure the full participation of women in the planning and distribution of these basic facilities.

Page 43, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
192. Displaced women and men have equal rights to obtain all necessary documents. Women and girls shall also have documentation issued in their own names. Special effort shall be made to provide documents to orphans.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
... 280. One hundred days after the signing of this Agreement, the JHFMU shall evaluate the effectiveness of the security measures presented in the previous sections on IDP camps and protection of women and children.
Pregnancy/maternity
Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. … (d) The State shall provide maternity, child care and medical care for pregnant women, children in need, persons with special needs and the elderly, in line with regional and international instruments ratified by the GoS.

Page 13, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3 30. (c) The death penalty shall not be executed upon pregnant or lactating women except after two years of lactation.

Page 45, CHAPTER IV, ARTICLE 42: GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR COMPENSATION AND THE RETURN OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AND REFUGEES 219. The protection and assistance of IDPs, refugees and all victims of conflict with special needs, including separated and unaccompanied children, female heads of household, expectant mothers, mothers with young children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. ... (b) Family is the basis of society and shall be protected by the law. Men and women shall enjoy the right to marry and found a family, in accordance with their respective family laws.
International human rights standards
Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. (a) Women and men shall enjoy all civil and political rights enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as all economic, social and cultural rights in the International Covenant ratified by the GoS.
Other
Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. ... (c) The State shall combat harmful customs and traditions, which undermine the dignity and the status of women.
New institutions
Infrastructure (general)
Page 76, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
394. Women shall be fairly represented on the DSAIC and any subsidiary bodies it establishes. These bodies shall develop mechanisms to ensure that their work incorporates appropriate input from women on issues of special concern to women and children.
Violence against women
Gender-based violence/VAW (general)
Page 42, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
186. The relevant authorities, with the assistance of the AU and the international community, shall protect the returning displaced persons from all forms of harassment, coercion, informal ‘taxation’ or confiscation of property. In such exercise, special attention to the protection of displaced women from all forms of harassment, exploitation and gender-based violence, is essential.

Page 49, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 23
217. The aims of this Chapter are as follows:
... (c) To ensure that protection of the civilian population is given the highest priority by all parties, particularly the women and children are not subjected to gender-based violence.

Page 51, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 24
226.
... (e) All acts and forms of gender-based violence.

Page 53, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 25
... 236. AMIS shall not tolerate gender-based violence and abuse of women and children.

No DDR and prisoner release and violence Page 59, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 Protection of Women and Children
276. The Parties, in coordination with the AMIS Civilian Police, the existing international and national humanitarian coordination mechanisms for assistance in IDP camps and the United Nations (including in consultation with representatives of IDPs) shall ensure that women and children in the camp are protected from all forms of violence.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 277. In areas of GoS control, the GoS Police shall investigate all crimes, including those committed against women and children, and ensure the prosecution of the perpetrators and the protection of the victims. They shall give the AMIS Civilian Police unimpeded access and information to monitor these activities.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
... 278. AMIS Civilian Police together with GoS Police and Movements’ Police Liaison Officers in their respective areas of control, shall establish separate police counters for the reporting of crimes committed against women, and women police personnel should staff these counters.

Page 65, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 27
321. The plans shall include the following:
(c) Strategies to deal with the problem of violence against women and children.
Protection (general)
Page 49, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY The aims of this Chapter are as follows: (c) To ensure that protection of the civilian population is given the highest priority by all the parties, particularly the women and children are not subjected to gender-based violence.

Page 57, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 262. Consistent with the existing ceasefire agreements, the Parties reaffirm the following commitments: (e) To provide special protection for women, children, the vulnerable and disabled persons.

Page 59, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 Protection of Women and Children 275. The Parties shall release all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups. UNICEF, UNHCR, and the ICRC shall be called upon to assist in the identification, removal, family unification and reintegration of children associated with armed forces and groups. 276. The Parties, in coordination with the AMIS Civilian Police, the existing international and national humanitarian coordination mechanisms for assistance in IDP camps and the United Nations (including in consultation with representatives of IDPs) shall ensure that women and children in the camp are protected from all forms of violence.

Page 60, 280. One hundred days after the signing of this Agreement, the JHFMU shall evaluate the effectiveness of the security measures presented in the previous sections on IDP camps and protection of women and children.
Other
Page 13, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
30. (c) The death penalty shall not be executed upon pregnant or lactating women except after two years of lactation.


Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 43, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
... 195. DRRC and the relevant authorities shall establish restitution procedures, which must be simple, accessible, transparent and enforceable. All aspects of the restitution claims process, including appeals procedures, shall be just, timely, accessible, free of charge, and age and gender sensitive. The procedures shall contain positive measures to ensure that women are able to participate on a fully equal basis in the process.

Page 45, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 21
205. Taking note of the suffering of the individual people of Darfur, and the customary practices of tribal restitution in Darfur, the Commission shall work out principles for appropriate restitution or other compensation. In doing so, the Commission shall take into account, among other considerations:
... (d) The needs of vulnerable groups such as women and children;
Prisons, prisoner release
Page 59, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 Protection of Women and Children 275. The Parties shall release all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups. UNICEF, UNHCR, and the ICRC shall be called upon to assist in the identification, removal, family unification and reintegration of children associated with armed forces and groups. 276. The Parties, in coordination with the AMIS Civilian Police, the existing international and national humanitarian coordination mechanisms for assistance in IDP camps and the United Nations (including in consultation with representatives of IDPs) shall ensure that women and children in the camp are protected from all forms of violence.
Other
Page 28, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 17
109. The women of Darfur are involved in all areas of activity and constitute the bulk of the labour force, especially in the agricultural and animal resource sectors. In addition, women are heads of households particularly among refugees, the internally displaced persons and migrants. Women’s situation in all these areas has been worsened by the war, which has had a particularly deleterious impact on women and children, especially in relation to their means of livelihood. There is a need, therefore, for a special focus on the specific situation of women and for providing concrete measures to address their concerns, as well as ensuring their equal and effective participation in committees, commissions and bodies established pursuant to this Agreement.
Institutional reform
Emergency/criminal law/corruption reform
Page 13, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
30. (c) The death penalty shall not be executed upon pregnant or lactating women except after two years of lactation.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 277. In areas of GoS control, the GoS Police shall investigate all crimes, including those committed against women and children, and ensure the prosecution of the perpetrators and the protection of the victims. They shall give the AMIS Civilian Police unimpeded access and information to monitor these activities.
Police
Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
277. In areas of GoS control, the GoS Police shall investigate all crimes, including those committed against women and children, and ensure the prosecution of the perpetrators and the protection of the victims. They shall give the AMIS Civilian Police unimpeded access and information to monitor these activities.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
... 278. AMIS Civilian Police together with GoS Police and Movements’ Police Liaison Officers in their respective areas of control, shall establish separate police counters for the reporting of crimes committed against women, and women police personnel should staff these counters.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
... 279. A significant number of GoS Police, Movements’ Police Liaison Officers and AMIS Civilian Police officers shall be women; they shall have specialist gender units to work with women and children; and all their investigations and monitoring shall include at least one woman.

Page 83, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
447. Reform of selected security institutions shall be in accordance with the following:
... (e) They shall include women in all ranks and shall have specific sections to address the particular needs of women and children with respect to personal security and law enforcement.

Page 84, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
451. Within 60 days of the signing of this Agreement, the DSAIC shall initiate a comprehensive review of policing in Darfur, with the aim of making specific recommendations to the TDRA to improve the effectiveness and professionalism of the police, in particular their ability to respond to, take into account, and address the special needs of women.
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 49, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 23 217. The aims of this Chapter are as follows: (c) To ensure that protection of the civilian population is given the highest priority by all parties, particularly the women and children are not subjected to gender-based violence.

Page 51, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 24
226.
... (m) Any recruitment or use of boys and girls under age 18 years by Parties.

Page 57, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 262. Consistent with the existing ceasefire agreements, the Parties reaffirm the following commitments: (e) To provide special protection for women, children, the vulnerable and disabled persons.

Page 59, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26
Protection of Women and Children
275. The Parties shall release all boys and girls associated with armed forces and groups. UNICEF, UNHCR, and the ICRC shall be called upon to assist in the identification, removal, family unification and reintegration of children associated with armed forces and groups.
276. The Parties, in coordination with the AMIS Civilian Police, the existing international and national humanitarian coordination mechanisms for assistance in IDP camps and the United Nations (including in consultation with representatives of IDPs) shall ensure that women and children in the camp are protected from all forms of violence.

Page 60, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 26 277. In areas of GoS control, the GoS Police shall investigate all crimes, including those committed against women and children, and ensure the prosecution of the perpetrators and the protection of the victims. They shall give the AMIS Civilian Police unimpeded access and information to monitor these activities.

Page 74, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 28
379. The Movements may request non-military logistic support when they have undertaken the following activities to the satisfaction of the AMIS Force Commander:
(c) Registered with AMIS their combatants and determined the number, age and gender of the combatants requiring support.

Page 77, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
400. The integration process shall be designed and undertaken in a manner that contributes to the professionalism, inclusiveness, and capabilities of Sudan’s security institutions, without discrimination on the basis of gender. The integration process shall be completed within sixteen months covering conventional training, but not post basic or upgrade training.

Page 77, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
401. The GoS shall make positions available to former combatants on the basis of a rank structure, and senior positions shall be included as appropriate. Taking into account the availability of accelerated officer training, the TIC shall recommend a specific number of former combatants to fill senior and supporting positions at SAF General Staff HQ, SAF Western Command HQ, the Ministry of Defense, the Directorate of Military Intelligence, and equivalent police HQ on the basis of qualifications, experience, and institutional needs. Special attention shall be paid to the integration of female former combatants.

Page 79, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
416. The ICP shall take into account the special needs of female former combatants.

Page 80, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
428. The demobilization shall include former combatants, including female former combatants.

Page 81, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
438. Specific resources shall be mobilized and set aside to address the special reintegration needs of women, and these resources shall be administered separately by a mechanism capable of effectively performing this function.

Page 82, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 29
442. The Reintegration Plan shall develop specific programs for former combatants under the age of 18; female former combatants; and disabled former combatants.
... 445. Specific programs shall be developed to address the particular reintegration needs of women, especially widows of former combatants.
Public administration
Page 22, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 11. The National Civil Service
76.b.ii. Affirmative action on recruitment, training and promotion, including measures to promote gender balance;
77.b. Reserve certain posts in the NCS exclusively for qualified women, particularly those from the less developed areas such as Darfur.
78. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women in the civil service.
Development
General
Page 31, CHAPTER TWO: WEALTH SHARING, ARTICLE 18
128. The Parties agree that a system of specific purpose grants shall be developed with a view to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), poverty eradication goals and gender development.
Education
Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. ... (f) The State shall provide access to education without discrimination as to religion, race, ethnicity, gender or disability, as well as access to free primary health care and free and compulsory primary education.

Page 73, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 27
369. GoS shall restore personnel and funding of governmental services in areas in which they have been interrupted due to the conflict, including education, health, water, veterinary services, agricultural extension, forestry, road maintenance and posts and telecommunications, with special attention to the specific needs of women. This shall be consistent with the provisions of the Chapter on Wealth Sharing. The Movements shall cooperate in the restoration of such services.
Health (general)
Page 12, CHAPTER ONE: POWER SHARING, ARTICLE 3
28. ... (d) The State shall provide maternity, child care and medical care for pregnant women, children in need, persons with special needs and the elderly, in line with regional and international instruments ratified by the GoS.

Page 73, CHAPTER THREE: COMPREHENSIVE CEASEFIRE AND FINAL SECURITY ARRANGEMENTS, ARTICLE 27 369. GoS shall restore personnel and funding of governmental services in areas in which they have been interrupted due to the conflict, including education, health, water, veterinary services, agricultural extension, forestry, road maintenance and posts and telecommunications, with special attention to the specific needs of women. This shall be consistent with the provisions of the Chapter on Wealth Sharing. The Movements shall cooperate in the restoration of such services.
Other
Page 89, CHAPTER FOUR:DARFUR-DARFUR DIALOGUE AND CONSULTATION, ARTICLE 31
484. Issues to be addressed by the DDDC shall include:
...(i) Measures to address the special issues and concerns of women.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

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