Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement

Country/entity
Sudan
Eastern Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement
Date
19/06/2006
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
92: Eastern Sudanese Peace Process
Parties
Government of Sudan; Eastern Sudan Front Sudan
Third parties
Description
Agreement comprises four chapters. The first addresses governance issues and the political participation of Eastern Sudan people, including the etsablishment of a Coordinating Council for Eastern Sudan states. The second deals with economic, social and cultural issues including the principle of wealth sharing and management of natural resrouces. The third comprises provisions on a ceasefire and security sector reform including integration of the Eastern Front into the national army. The fourth calls for a Consultative Conference on the Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement (ESPA), gathering all the stakeholders (including traditional leaders, political parties, civil society organizations, trade unions, religious leaders, business leaders and members of the diaspora, to publicize and moilise support fo the ESPA, build momentum for implementaiton and provide a forum to all stake holders to provide recommendation to the Eastern Sudan authorities. The agreement incorporates Six other agreements.

Agreement document
SD_061014_Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement.pdf

Main category
Page 7, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, Article 1
... 7. Women shall be fairly represented in all government institutions at all levels and their equal and effective participation ensured.

Page 10, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, ARTICLE 7
... 19. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women in all institutions at all levels of government

Page 11, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, ARTICLE 8: The Council of Ministers
...23. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness, the GoS shall ensure effective representation of the people Eastern Sudan, including the Eastern Sudan Front, as follows:
... (c) Special effort shall be made to ensure that women are represented in these nominations.

Page 11, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, ARTICLE 9: The National Assembly
... 24. Prior to the elections and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure the representation of Eastern Sudanese in the National Assembly, including the Eastern Front. In this regard, not less than eight seats shall be allocated to nominees of the Eastern Sudan Front. It is highly recommended that some of the nominees be women.

Page 19, CHAPTER TWO, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES, Article 22
75. The following shall be the fundamental objectives of development in Eastern Sudan:
... (k) Ensuring that all the development programs address the specific needs of women;

Page 29, CHAPTER FOUR, CONSULTATIVE CONFERENCE ON EASTERN SUDAN PEACE AGREEMENT, Article 33
... 140. All the stakeholders, including community and traditional leaders, political parties, civil society organizations, trade unions, professionals, religious leaders, business leaders, and members of the diaspora shall participate in the CC ESPA. There shall be adequate and effective representation of women and youth.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 11, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, ARTICLE 9
The National Assembly
24. Prior to the elections and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness the GoS shall ensure the representation of Eastern Sudanese in the National Assembly, including the Eastern Front. In this regard, not less than eight seats shall be allocated to nominees of the Eastern Sudan Front. It is highly recommended that some of the nominees be women.
Effective participation
Page 7, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, Article 1
...
7. Women shall be fairly represented in all government institutions at all levels and their equal and effective participation ensured.

Page 10, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, ARTICLE 7
...
19. Special measures shall be taken to ensure the participation of women in all institutions at all levels of government

Page 11, CHAPTER ONE, POLITICAL ISSUES: GOVERNANCE AND POWER, ARTICLE 8: The Council of Ministers
...
23. Prior to the elections, and with a view to reflecting the need for unity and inclusiveness, the GoS shall ensure effective representation of the people Eastern Sudan, including the Eastern Sudan Front, as follows:
...
(c) Special effort shall be made to ensure that women are represented in these nominations.

Page 29, CHAPTER FOUR, CONSULTATIVE CONFERENCE ON EASTERN SUDAN PEACE AGREEMENT, Article 33

140. All the stakeholders, including community and traditional leaders, political parties, civil society organizations, trade unions, professionals, religious leaders, business leaders, and members of the diaspora shall participate in the CC ESPA. There shall be adequate and effective representation of women and youth.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
General
Page 19, CHAPTER TWO, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES, Article 22
75. The following shall be the fundamental objectives of development in Eastern Sudan:
...
(k) Ensuring that all the development programs address the specific needs of women;
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh