Declaration by the Participants to the Peace Negotiations in Burundi

Country/entity
Burundi
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Declaration by the Participants to the Peace Negotiations in Burundi
Date
21/06/1998
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Burundian Civil War (1993-2005)
The conflict had an ethnic base between Hutu and Tutsi populations, and is one of a set of regionally connected conflicts also addressed n the Great Lakes process. Since independence in 1972, the Burundian political landscape has been polarised and marked by ethnic-based tensions, political assassinations and large-scale violence. For the following two decades, three Tutsi military regimes associated with the Union for National Progress (UPRONA) ruled the country. During these military dictatorships, numerous waves of mass violence resulted from the attempts of various opposition rebels groups to destabilise the three regimes, and the regimes’ use of violence to repress these attempts. Despite a wave of hope in the early 1990’s, Burundi entered a decade-long civil war in 1993 following the assassination of Burundi’s first democratically elected president, Melchior Ndadaye, from the ethnically-Hutu Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU) by Tutsi opposition in the military.
In 1998 the Arusha Peace Talks commenced and in August 2000, international pressure resulted in the signing of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi. However, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNND) did not sign. Additionally, and Party for the Liberation of Hutu People (Palipehutu) did not participate in negotiations. These outsiders continued sporadic violence until 2008. In 2015, a new wave of political violence is taking place after President Nkurunziza, from the CNDD-FDD which has been in power since 2005, won a contested third-mandate.
Burundian Civil War (1993-2005) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Mixed)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
19: Burundi: Arusha and related peace process
Parties
we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la
libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization

1. Government of Burundi
(Signed) Ambrose NIYONSABA, Head of delegation
2. National Assembly
(Signed) Alphonse NAHINDAVYI-NDANGA, Head of delegation
3. Front pour la democratie au Burundi
(Signed) Jean MINANI, Head of delegation
4. Union pour le progrès national Express reservations
(Signed) Libère BARARUNYERETSE, Head of delegation
5. Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie
(Signed) Leonard NYANGOMA, Head of delegation
6. Parti pour le redressement national
(Signed) Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA, Head of Delegation
7. Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut
(Signed) Nsanze TERENCE, Head of Delegation
8. AV-INTWARI
(Signed) André NKUNDIKIJE, Head of delegation
9. Front pour la libération nationale
(Signed) Joseph KARUMBA, Head of delegation
10. INKINZO
(Signed) Kamo PASCAL, Head of delegation
11. Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi
(Signed) Antoine SEZOYA, Head of delegation
12. Parti indépendant des travailleurs
(Signed) Etienne NYAHOZA, Head of delegation
13. Parti libéral
(Signed) Gaetan NIKOBAMYE, Head of delegation
14. Parti du peuple
(Signed) Schadrack NIYONKURU, Head of delegation
15. Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple
(Signed) Mathias HITIMANA, Head of delegation
16. Parti social democrate
(Signed) Godefroy HAKIZIMANA, Head of delegation
17. Rassemblement du peuple burundais
(Signed) Balthazar BIGIRIMANA, Head of delegation

Third parties
- At the invitation of Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, the Facilitator of the peace negotiations on Burundi

- In that connection, we thank the heads of State and Government of the region, the representatives of the secretaries-general of the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations for the encouragement and support which they offered at the opening ceremony of
the peace negotiations.
...
We express our special appreciation and deep gratitude to the Facilitator, Mwalimu K. Nyerere, for his patience and commitment to the quest for a just and lasting peace in Burundi.
Description
This agreement was reached at the first session of negotiations between Burundian parties. It demonstrates and provides for the following dimensions: (1) the universal commitment to resolve the Burundi conflict by peaceful means and end all forms of violence; (2) the commitment to resume talks in one month’s time; (3) the setting of the agenda for the comprehensive negotiations; (4) the appointment of the committees which are to assume responsibility for the various agenda items.

Agreement document
BI_980621_DeclarationByTheParticipantsToPeaceNegotiationsOnBurundi.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
... we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour
la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
Signing or witnessing agreement
Page 1, Untitled Preamble:
... we, the leaders/representatives of the parties to the conflict, namely, the Government of Burundi, National Assembly, Front pour la democratie au Burundi (FRODEBU), Union pour le progrès national (UPRONA), Conseil national pour la défense de la démocratie (CNDD), Parti pour le redressement nationale (PARENA), Parti libéral (PL), Parti indépendant des travailleurs (PIT), Parti social democrate (PSD), Alliance burundo-africaine pour le salut (ABASA), INKINZO, AV-INTWARI, Parti pour la réconciliation du peuple (PRP), Parti du peuple (PP), Rassemblement du peuple burundais (RPB), Parti pour la libération du peuple hutu du Burundi (PALIPEHUTU) and Front de la libération nationale (FROLINA), in the presence of representatives of the following organizations of civil society: the Chamber of Commerce, the Women’s Association and the Youth Organization...
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh