Global and Inclusive Agreement on Transition in the Democratic Republic of Congo ('The Pretoria Agreement')

Country/entity
Democratic Republic of Congo
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Global and Inclusive Agreement on Transition in the Democratic Republic of Congo ('The Pretoria Agreement')
Date
16/12/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Congo Civil Wars (1996 - )
The overthrow of the long-term dictator Mobutu Sese Seko by a rebel Tutsi army backed by Uganda and Rwanda in 1997 acted as a catalyst for a war with regional dimensions, mainly fought in the eastern Kivu provinces. The conflict escalated in 1998, when President Laurent Kabila, then backed by Zimbabwean and Angolan troops, ordered Rwanda and Uganda to leave. After Kabila’s assassination in 2001, his son Joseph took over the presidency and won in the 2006 democratic elections.

In the eastern provinces, Tutsi-led militias, mainly organised in the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), fought the remnants of the Rwandan Hutu force FDLR, with further involvement of Rwandan and Ugandan troops. Other regionally operating militia groups, like the Lord’s Resistance Army from Northern Uganda, the so-called Mai Mai groups or short-lived guerrilla outfits like the March 23 Movement (M23) further contributed, and still contribute, to the complexity of the situation in eastern DRC.

Congo Civil Wars (1996 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
31: DRC: Second Congo war process
Parties
the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (MLC), the political opposition, civil society, the Congolese Rally for Democracy/Liberation Movement (RDC/ML), the Congolese Rally for Democracy/National (RCD/N), the Mai-Mai;
Third parties
Page 2, PREAMBLE

CALLING on the following persons to bear witness: His Excellency Mr Ketumile MASIRE, neutral facilitator in the Inter-Congolese Dialogue, His Excellency Mr Koffi ANNAN, Secretary-General of the United Nations Organisation, represented by His Excellency Mr Moustapha NIASSE, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General of theUnited Nations for the Inter-Congolese Dialogue, His Excellency Mr Thabo MBEKI, President of the Republic of South Africa and current Chairman of the African Union;
Description
Parties commit to peaceful resolution of DRC crisis, creating restructured national army, disarming armed groups and withdrawing foreign forces,

Agreement document
DRC_021216_Global and Inclusive Agreement on Transition in DRC.pdf

Main category
Page 4, III - TRANSITION PRINCIPLES

1. To guarantee a peaceful transition, the Parties shall participate in the political administration of the country during the period of transition. The institutions that will be set up during the transition shall ensure appropriate representation of the eleven provinces of the country and of the different tendencies within the political and social forces. In particular, provision shall be made for appropriate representation of women at all levels of responsibility.

Page 15, ANNEX I: THE DIVISION OF RESPONSIBILITIES, A. THE GOVERNMENT

2. The transitional government shall be composed of the following Ministries:

...

Women's and Family Affairs

...

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Effective participation
Page 4, III - TRANSITION PRINCIPLES: 1. To guarantee a peaceful transition, the Parties shall participate in the political administration of the country during the period of transition. The institutions that will be set up during the transition shall ensure appropriate representation of the eleven provinces of the country and of the different tendencies within the political and social forces. In particular, provision shall be made for appropriate representation of women at all levels of responsibility.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
Institutions for women
Page 15, ANNEX I: THE DIVISION OF RESPONSIBILITIES, A. THE GOVERNMENT: 2. The transitional government shall be composed of the following Ministries:
...Women's and Family Affairs
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh