The Agreement between the Uganda Government and the Lord's Resistance Army ('Gulu Ceasefire')

Country/entity
Uganda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
The Agreement between the Uganda Government and the Lord's Resistance Army ('Gulu Ceasefire')
Date
02/02/1994
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - )
Uganda has long experienced tensions along ethnic, religious and national lines. On independence in 1962, Ugandan politics were defined by smaller monarchies, among which the Southern Kingdom of Buganda dominated the national sphere. Resistance to this system was the campaign platform of the Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) led by Milton Obote, who won the 1962 elections. Tension between the Buganda’s ruler King Mutesa II and Obote with his then-ally Idi Amin, led to Obote changing the constitution, abolishing the monarchic system and thus, centralizing power. However, a split between Obote and Amin eventually led to a military coup d’état in 1970, which brought Amin the presidency where he instituted his genocidal regime.

Despite economic collapse, President Amin was only removed from power following a failed attempt at invading Tanzania in 1979, whereby the Tanzanian counter-attack alongside forces loyal to former-President Obote toppled Amin. Authoritarianism continued under the new regime, after Obote won the 1980 elections under dubious circumstances, and in 1985, Obote was once again deposed in a coup. Out of the fray, Yoweri Museveni and the National Resistance Army (NRA) captured the presidency in 1986 and began instituting economic and democratic reforms.

Resistance to Museveni, however, continued with various insurgencies across the country including by former-supporters of President Obote or President Amin. Other insurgencies based on chiliastic beliefs based on the return of Jesus Christ, most notably the Holy Spirit Movement, fought in the late 1980s before splintering into several smaller factions. One such faction later became the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) led by Joseph Kony. Many of the 22 or more insurgency groups estimated to contain more than 40,000 insurgents, operate from across the Ugandan border and are based in either South Sudan or the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Ugandan Conflicts (1970 - ) )
Stage
Ceasefire/related (Ceasefire)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
135: Uganda peace process
Parties
National Resistance Minister of State, Resident in the North, Hon. Mrs Betty Atuku Bogombe with National Resistance Army 4th Division Commander Commander Colonel Samuel Wassawa on the one hand and the and the Lord's Resistance Army leader H.H. Joseph Kony and his High Command on the other.
Third parties
In the presence and witnessed by: Hon. Mrs. Betty Bigombe, Minister of State in the Office of the Prime Minister, Resident in the North, the District Administrator, Gulu, District Administrator, Kitgum, Mr Yusuf Okwonga Adek, Mr Okot Ogoni, Mr Okidi, Angol, Mr George William Lugai.
Description
The agreement is pursuant to the previous peace initiatives as a means of finding a non-violent solution in the Northern Uganda districts of Gulu, Kitgum and heighbouring areas. Amounts to a short ceasefire agreement and a commitment to look for peace.

With effect from 14:00 hours on the 2nd day of February 1994, hostilities between the two parties to this agreement formally cease forthwith.


Agreement document
UG_940202_The Gulu Ceasefire.pdf

Main category
Page 1, Appendix A, To regroup all their forces, and this shall equally incorporate the duty of, Article 1,
... (c) Documenting men and women under LRA control;

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 2, Appendix A: Pursuant to the ceasefire Agreement signed on 2nd February 1994, the Lord’s Resistance Army undertakes: 1. To regroup all their forces, and this shall equally incorporate the duty of:
...(c) Documenting men and women under LRA control.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh