The Ivorian civil war broke out in 2002 over the disqualification of Alassane Ouattara from the predominantly Muslim north for the presidential elections due to his missing “Ivoirity”. This concept, politically enforced by nationalist forces around President Laurent Ggagbo in the South of the country and in the capital Abidjan, demanded that both parents of a presidential candidate had to be born in Cote D’Ivoire. Despite several agreements and French military involvement the fighting continued until 2005, when a South African mediation attempt – and the qualification of the national football squad for the World Cup in 2006 – helped to end the fighting. The situation remained unstable even with a UN peacekeeping force in place. Renewed fighting broke out after the presidential elections in 2010 where Ouattara was allowed to run, but he lost the elections under unclear circumstances and perceptions of fraud. Finally, Ggagbo was arrested in April 2011 by French-backed forces supporting Ouattara.
Ivorian Civil War (2002 - 2011)
Implementation/renegotiation (Addresses new or outstanding issues)
5: Cote D'Ivoire: peace process
For the Defence and Security Forces of Côte d’Ivoire
Major-General Mathias Doue Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces
(Signed) By order, Colonel Kadio Miezou Head of COIA
For the Armed Forces of the Forces Nouvelles
(Signed) Colonel Bakayoko Soumaila Chief of Staff a.i. of the Armed Forces of the Forces Nouvelles
Declaration made in presence of Special Representative of the Secretary-General
The parties declare the war to have ended, undertake to support the Linas-marcoussis and Accra agreements, affirm that they are subordinate to the Government of National Reconciliation, reaffirm commitment to DDR programme, invite the government to adopt an amnesty law, commit to developing a 'truly republican' army.
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