Joint Declaration that the Federal Government and the EZLN shall submit to National Debating and Decision-making Bodies

Country/entity
Mexico
Region
Americas
Agreement name
Joint Declaration that the Federal Government and the EZLN shall submit to National Debating and Decision-making Bodies
Date
16/02/1996
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Zapatista Uprising (1994 - )
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between United States, Canada and Mexico implied the removal of the Article 27 of Mexico's constitution that protected the native communal landholdings. In reaction, the left-wing Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) declared war against the Mexican government on the day of the signing of the NAFTA agreement, 1 January 1994.
Led by charismatic Subcomandante Marcos, the EZLN rapidly gained popularity among the left-wing youth in the Americas and in Europe and established a considerable global media presence.
Peace negotiations started in 1995, leading to several agreements, the San Andrés Accords signed in 1995 and 1996. However, socio-political tensions with the Mexican state and the lack of protection of the indigenous peoples and subsistence farmers remained unresolved. Nowadays, the Chiapas Conflict continues as a low-intensity conflict.
Zapatista Uprising (1994 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
82: Mexico-Chiapas peace process
Parties
EZLN, Mexican Government
Third parties
Description
This declaration contains agreed principles and foundations for a new relationship between indigenous peoples, society and the State; sets out context of the new relationship, commitments of the federal govt, principles of the new relationship, new legal framework,

Agreement document
MX_960216_Joint Declaration on National Debating and Decision making Bodies.pdf

Main category
Page 4, COMMITMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
3.6. Guaranteeing satisfaction of basic needs. The State should guarantee conditions for indigenous peoples that allow them to take care of their nutrition, health care and housing services in a satisfactory manner and at least an acceptable level of well-being. Social policy shall promote priority programs so that the infant population of indigenous peoples improves its levels of health and nutrition, and support is provided for the activities and training of indigenous women.

Page 5, COMMITMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
3.8. Protecting indigenous migrants. The State should promote specific social policies to protect indigenous migrants both within the national territory and beyond its borders, with inter-institutional actions of support for the work and education of women, of health care and education for children and young people, which in rural regions should be coordinated in the areas of contribution and of attraction of agricultural day laborers.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Social equality
Page 4, Part 3, Point 6
Guaranteeing satisfaction of basic needs. The State should guarantee conditions for indigenous peoples that allow them to take care of their nutrition, health care and housing services in a satisfactory manner and at least an acceptable level of well-being. Social policy shall promote priority programs so that the infant population of indigenous peoples improves its levels of health and nutrition, and support is provided for the activities and training of indigenous women.
Particular groups of women
Indigenous/nomadic women
Page 4, Part 3, Point 6
Guaranteeing satisfaction of basic needs. The State should guarantee conditions for indigenous peoples that allow them to take care of their nutrition, health care and housing services in a satisfactory manner and at least an acceptable level of well-being. Social policy shall promote priority programs so that the infant population of indigenous peoples improves its levels of health and nutrition, and support is provided for the activities and training of indigenous women.

Page 5, Part 3, Point 8
The State should promote specific social policies to protect indigenous migrants both within the national territory and beyond its borders, with inter-institutional actions of support for the work and education of women
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
Education
Page 4, Part 3, Point 6
...
Social policy shall promote priority programs so that...support is provided for the activities and training of indigenous women.

Page 5, Part 3, Point 8
The State should promote specific social policies to protect indigenous migrants both within the national territory and beyond its borders, with inter-institutional actions of support for the work and education of women
Health (general)
Page 4, COMMITMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES 3.6. Guaranteeing satisfaction of basic needs. The State should guarantee conditions for indigenous peoples that allow them to take care of their nutrition, health care and housing services in a satisfactory manner and at least an acceptable level of well-being. Social policy shall promote priority programs so that the infant population of indigenous peoples improves its levels of health and nutrition, and support is provided for the activities and training of indigenous women.

Page 5, COMMITMENTS OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES 3.8. Protecting indigenous migrants. The State should promote specific social policies to protect indigenous migrants both within the national territory and beyond its borders, with inter-institutional actions of support for the work and education of women, of health care and education for children and young people, which in rural regions should be coordinated in the areas of contribution and of attraction of agricultural day laborers.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh