Linas-Marcoussis Agreement

Country/entity
Cote d'Ivoire
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Linas-Marcoussis Agreement
Date
23/01/2003
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Ivorian Civil War (2002 - 2011)
The Ivorian civil war broke out in 2002 over the disqualification of Alassane Ouattara from the predominantly Muslim north for the presidential elections due to his missing “Ivoirity”. This concept, politically enforced by nationalist forces around President Laurent Ggagbo in the South of the country and in the capital Abidjan, demanded that both parents of a presidential candidate had to be born in Cote D’Ivoire. Despite several agreements and French military involvement the fighting continued until 2005, when a South African mediation attempt – and the qualification of the national football squad for the World Cup in 2006 – helped to end the fighting. The situation remained unstable even with a UN peacekeeping force in place. Renewed fighting broke out after the presidential elections in 2010 where Ouattara was allowed to run, but he lost the elections under unclear circumstances and perceptions of fraud. Finally, Ggagbo was arrested in April 2011 by French-backed forces supporting Ouattara.

Ivorian Civil War (2002 - 2011) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
5: Cote D'Ivoire: peace process
Parties
For the FPI-
Pascal AFFI NÄGUESSAN

For the MFA-
Innocent KOBENA ANAKY

For the MJP-
Gaspard DELI

For the MPCI-
Guillaume SORO

For the MPIGO-
Félix DOH

For the PDCI-RDA-
Henri KONAN BEDIE

For the PIT-
Francis WODIE

For the RDR-
Alassane Dramane OUATTARA

For the UDCY
Théodore MEL EG

For the UDCPI-
Paul AKOTO YAO
Third parties
The Chairman: Piere MAZEAUD

UN, AU & ECOWAS facilitators [not signatories]
Description
This agreement is the outcome of a roundtable of Ivorian political forces and international third parties. Issues covered include governance structures and measures for addressing citizenship, elections, land tenure, media, DDR, and economic recovery.

Agreement document
CI_030123_LinasMarcousisAgreement.pdf

Main category
Page 5, Annex, Programme of the Government of National Reconciliation, I. Citizenship, identity, status of foreign nationals, 1: ...Therefore the Government of National Reconciliation will:
...b. submit, on an exceptional basis and within six months, a naturalization bill aimed at settling in a simple and accessible manner the cases of those persons deemed ineligible and considered to be in the country illegally (in particular cases concerning persons formerly covered by Articles 17 to 23 of Law 61-415 as repealed by Law 72-852 and persons residing in Cote d'lvoire prior to 7 August 1960 who did not exercise their option within the prescribed deadline), and supplement the existing text by including in new Article 12 foreign men married to Ivorian women.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Citizenship
Page 5, Annex, Programme of the Government of National Reconciliation, I. Citizenship, identity, status of foreign nationals
... 3.b. submit, on an exceptional basis and within six months, a naturalization bill aimed at settling in a simple and accessible manner the cases of those persons deemed ineligible and considered to be in the country illegally (in particular cases concerning persons formerly covered by Articles 17 to 23 of Law 61-415 as repealed by Law 72-852 and persons residing in Cote d'lvoire prior to 7 August 1960 who did not exercise their option within the prescribed deadline), and supplement the existing text by including in new Article 12 foreign men married to Ivorian women.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh