Country/entity
South Sudan
Sudan
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Machakos Protocol
Date
20/07/2002
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Sudan Conflicts (1955 - )
Agreements relate to several distinct dyads, and also the negotiated independence of South Sudan, and subsequent internal conflict in South Sudan. Sudan-South Sudan. The long-standing conflict between the north and the south of the country dates back to colonial times, where the British introduced a so-called ‘Southern Policy’, severely hampering population movements between these big regions. Immediately after gaining independence in 1956, southern movements started to fight for independence; this fight became professionalised in 1983 with the foundation of the soon internationally supported Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). When the Islamic Front government introduced strict sharia laws in the south after it took over power in 1988 the war intensified. A decade later, the military situation reached a stalemate, enabling internationally facilitated peace negotiations to begin in 1997. After more fighting, a final negotiation push began in 2002, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Areement (CPA) in January 2005.

Sudan-South Sudan post referendum. South Sudan became independent in July 2011; since then, relations between the two countries are complicated and violent conflict led by the SPLM (North) in the Sudanese Nuba mountains region has since intensified.

Darfur. Other long-standing violent conflicts are in the east and the west of the country. In the east, the Beja Congress, established in 1957, is the spearhead of a currently ‘peaceful’ opposition movement. In the west, the violent conflict in Darfur intensified in the early 2000s and rapidly gained international attention, even resulting in genocide charges against leading figures of the Sudanese government. The situation on the ground is complex, with over a dozen organisations (most notably the Sudanese Liberation Movement and the Justice and Equality Movement) fighting the Sudanese government and allied groups like the Janjaweed – although all parties have switched sides on numerous occasions. Several mediation attempts have not been successful, due to the shaky commitment of the Sudanese central government and the distrust among the armed opposition.

South Sudan- internal. Post independence, conflict broke out between groups in South Sudan and agreements were reached addressing this conflict.

Sudan Conflicts (1955 - ) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Multiple issues)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
118: Sudanese peace process
Parties
Government of the Republic of Sudan, Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army
Third parties
Witnessed by Lt Ge Lazaro K. Sumbeiywo, Special Envoy IGAD Sudan Peace Process and on behalf of the IGAD Envoys
Description
An agreement to restart the peace process in Sudan, with agreed principles on state and religion, structures of governance, and the right of self-determination for the people of South Sudan. Furthermore, the agreements provides for a transition process, which would entail a six (6) year interim period that would include the establishment of a broad power and wealth sharing framework and conclude with a referendum for the people of Southern Sudan to determine their unity or secession with Sudan. Notable texts of the agreement highlight the separation of state and religious practices, including a constitutional review process to guarantee fundamental human and political rights, as well as noting future discussion on a comprehensive ceasefire and a plan for repatriation, resettlement, rehabilitation and reconstruction of the war-affected areas.

Agreement document
SD_020720_Machakos Protocol.pdf

Main category
Page 2, PART A: AGREED PRINCIPLES
1.5. That the people of the Sudan share a common heritage and aspirations and accordingly agree to work together to:
1.5.1. Establish a democratic system of governance taking account of the cultural, ethnic, racial, religious and linguistic diversity and gender equality of the people of the Sudan.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 3, PART A: AGREED PRINCIPLES
1.5. That the people of the Sudan share a common heritage and aspirations and accordingly agree to work together to:
1.5.1. Establish a democratic system of governance taking account of the cultural, ethnic, racial, religious and linguistic diversity and gender equality of the people of the Sudan.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh