Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on the Voluntary Repatriation and Reintegration of South African Returnees

Country/entity
South Africa
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of South Africa and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on the Voluntary Repatriation and Reintegration of South African Returnees
Date
16/08/1991
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Post Apartheid South Africa and Nambian Independence (1990 - 1994)
South Africa – internal. The roots of the modern South African conflict are found in the British and Dutch colonization of Southern Africa, which resulted in the introduction of a white minority who soon held power in the region. The South African state emerged following a hard-fought pact between the British government and the white Afrikaner minority. ‘Apartheid’ – the Afrikaans word for separateness – became official government policy after 1948. Resistance to this system was widespread and took diverse forms. In 1912, the African National Congress (ANC) was formed to push for reforms in the country. After the 1960 Sharpeville massacre several organisations around the ANC took up arms and began to fight the Apartheid government using violent means. During the 1980s, President P.W. Botha introduced a reform policy that enabled the post-1990 peace agreements, which paved the way for the end of the apartheid system.

South Africa- Namibia. One set of agreements relates to the independence of Namibia which followed from the end of apartheid.

Post Apartheid South Africa and Nambian Independence (1990 - 1994) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Confidence building measure)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
114: South Africa peace process
Parties
For the Government of the Republic of South Africa, Albert Leslie Manley; For the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, M. Douglas Stafford;
Third parties
Description
Agreement between the Government of South Africa and UNHCR to cooperate in the repatriation and reintegration of refugees. It outlines basic principles then contains two 'Annexures' on procedure and defining those eligible for indemnity due to the political nature of their offences.

Agreement document
ZA_910816_Memorandum of Understanding on Repatriation and Reintegration.pdf

Main category
Page 17, Annexure A, Procedures for Readmission Reception and Reintegration of South African Returnees who Apply to the UNHCR for Voluntary Repatriation to the Republic of South Africa
III. Installation and Reintegration
25. Special measures may be taken by the parties to assure the social security and welfare of returnees considered as vulnerable such as the physically or mentally handicapped, unaccompanied minors, the seriously sick and elderly persons, orphans and single women without any other support.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
Social equality
Page 17, Annexure A PROCEDURES FOR READMISSION, RECEPTION AND REINTEGRATION OF SOUTH AFRICAN RETURNEES WHO APPLY TO THE UNHCR FOR VOLUNTARY REPATRIATION TO SOUTH AFRICA
III. Installation and reintegration
25. Special measures may be taken by the parties to assure the social security and welfare of returnees considered as vulnerable such as the physically or mentally handicapped, unaccompanied minors, the seriously sick and elderly persons, orphans and single women without any other support.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
Past and gender
Page 17, Annexure A PROCEDURES FOR READMISSION, RECEPTION AND REINTEGRATION OF SOUTH AFRICAN RETURNEES WHO APPLY TO THE UNHCR FOR VOLUNTARY REPATRIATION TO SOUTH AFRICA
... III. Installation and reintegration
...25. Special measures may be taken by the parties to assure the social security and welfare of returnees considered as vulnerable such as the physically or mentally handicapped, unaccompanied minors, the seriously sick and elderly persons, orphans and single women without any other support.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh