Agreement relating to Bosnia and Herzegovina (Owen-Stoltenberg Peace Plan, or 'Invincible plan')

Country/entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Yugoslavia (former)
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Agreement relating to Bosnia and Herzegovina (Owen-Stoltenberg Peace Plan, or 'Invincible plan')
Date
16/09/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001)
Former Yugoslavia

The disintegration of former Yugoslavia post cold war saw conflicts which became mediated and produced peace agreements in Slovenia (where the brief independence conflict was mediated by the EC Troika in 1991), Croatia (between Croatian and Serb populations 1991-1995), in Bosnia (between Croatian, Serb and Bosniak populations 1992-1995), in Macedonia (where mediation played a key pre-emptive role in preventing large scale conflict in 2001), in Kosovo (between Kosovar Albanians and Serbian population and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), but also between FRY and NATO, 1998-1999), and a conflict in the Presevo Valley (between Albanians in South Serbia and FRY, 2000-2001). The continued fall-out of the disintegration of former Yugoslavia also saw mediated agreement and ultimate dissolution of the Union between Serbia and Montenegro.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

In 1991, after nationalist parties won the first multi-party elections in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, a violent process of disintegration commenced. With its mixed population, Bosnia-Herzegovina became the centre of the following civil war that began in 1992 between the newly formed army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Muslim Bosniacs), and the parastatal forces of self-declared Bosnian Croat (Herzeg-Bosnia) and Bosnian Serb (Republika Srpska) entities within Bosnia-Herzegovina, supported by Croatia and Serbia, with various, often short-lived, coalitions. The General Framework Agreement (Dayton Peace Agreement), signed in 1995, split the country into two ethno-federal entities, the Bosniak-Croat Federation and the Republika Srpska, and included continued peacekeeping and institutional administration by international actors.

Kosovo

The conflict between Serbs and Kosovar Albanians has a long history and always involved territorial disputes as well as ethno-political, cultural and linguistic factors. The most recent phase of the conflict began in November 1997 when the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UCK) began their campaign for the independence of Kosovo from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY – then Serbia and Montenegro). The subsequent war lasted until the NATO intervention, which undertook bombing campaigns of Belgrade and other places in Serbia during spring 1999. The main agreements solving the conflict were internationally driven and, finally, a UNSC resolution imposed a post-conflict arrangement in the wake of what was essentially a NATO military victory. In February 2008, Kosovo’s parliament declared independence, but independence is still internationally disputed.

Balkan Conflicts (1991 - 1995) (1998 - 2001) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - comprehensive (Agreement)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
140: Bosnia peace process
Parties
Constitutional Agreement of the Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Alija Izetbegovic; Radovan Karadzic; Mate Boban; Momir Bulatovic; Slobodan Milosevic; and Franjo Tudjman.
30 July 1993 Agreement for a Complete Cessation of All Combat Activities Among the Parties in Conflict: Gen. Rasim Delic, Lt. Gen. Ratko Mladic, and Gen. Milivoj Petkovic.
Military Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Gen. Rasim Delic, Lt. Gen . Ratko Mladic, Gen. Milivoj Petkovic, and Lt. Gen. Francis Briquemont
Joint Declaration of 16 September 1993: Momir Bulatovic, Alija Izetbegovic, Radovan Karadzic, and Slobodan Milosevic.
Joint Declaration of 14 September: The Presidents of the Republic of Croatia Dr. Franjo Tudjman and of the Presidency of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Mr. Alija Izetbegovic.
Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina granting the Union access to the Adriatic through the territory of the Republic of Croatia: the Republic of Croatia and The Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Third parties
Constitutional Agreement of the Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina: witnessed by Thorvald Stoltenberg and David Owen.
30 July 1993 Agreement for a Complete Cessation of All Combat Activities Among the Parties in Conflict: as UNPROFOR witnesses, Gen. Jean Cot, Force Commander, and Lt. Gen. Francis Briquemont, Commander, B & H Command.
Joint Declaration of 16 September 1993: as witnesses, Thorvald Stoltenberg and David Owen.
Description
This comprehensive plan is comprised of: Constitutional Agreement of the Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina; 30 July 1993 Agreement for a Complete Cessation of All Combat Activities Among the Parties in Conflict; 11 August 1993 Military Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina; Preliminary Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina for Implementing the 1965 Convention on Transit Trade of Land-Locked States [Unsigned as conditional on implementing Constitutional Agreement, not coded below], Joint Declaration of 16 September 1993; Joint Declaration of 14 September; Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the Union of Republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina granting the Union access to the Adriatic through the territory of the Republic of Croatia.

Parts of the plan were signed over the course of negotiations from July to September 1993. Although all three sides signed component agreements, the peace plan was rejected by the Bosnian parliament on September 27th 1993. We have listed 16 September 1993 as the latest date that a part of the plan was signed (Appendix V: Joint Declaration, signed by all sides).

Agreement document
BA_930916_Owen-StoltenbergPeacePlan.pdf

Main category
Page 16, Annex C: Human Rights Instruments Incorporated into the Constitutional Agreement, A. General Human Rights, especially Civil and Political Rights
8. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against women

Page 17, Annex C: Human Rights Instruments Incorporated into the Constitutional Agreement, D. Citizenship and Nationality
18. 1957 Convention on the Nationality of Married Women

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
International human rights standards
Page 16, Annex C: Human Rights Instruments Incorporated into the Constitutional Agreement, A. General Human Rights, especially Civil and Political Rights
...
8. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against women

Page 17, Annex C: Human Rights Instruments Incorporated into the Constitutional Agreement, D. Citizenship and Nationality
...
18. 1957 Convention on the Nationality of Married Women
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Constitution-making/reform
Page 16, Annex C: Human Rights Instruments Incorporated into the Constitutional Agreement, A. General Human Rights, especially Civil and Political Rights ... 8. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against women Page 17, Annex C: Human Rights Instruments Incorporated into the Constitutional Agreement, D. Citizenship and Nationality ... 18. 1957 Convention on the Nationality of Married Women
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh