Final agreement on the implementation of the 1976 Tripoli Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)

Country/entity
Philippines
Mindanao
Region
Asia and Pacific
Agreement name
Final agreement on the implementation of the 1976 Tripoli Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
Date
02/09/1996
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Philippine Insurgencies (1968 - )
The Maoist Insurgencies (1968 - )

Philippines-NDF

The Philippines have been defined by a series of center-periphery and often ideologically Maoist, separatist insurgencies. The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), began its war against the central Philippine government in 1968 through their armed wing – the New People’s Army (NPA). Further legitimacy was gained through the establishment of the National Democratic Front (NDF) in 1973. Grievances were predominantly opposed to the corruption and repression under the authoritarian Marcos regime.

Philippines-Cordillera

With the overthrow of Marcos’ regime in 1986, the CPP factionalized further to take on more localized characteristics. The Cordillera Peoples Liberation Army (CPLA) broke away from the NDF in 1986 to focus on the protection of the Cordilleran people and land in northern Luzon. Hostilities were formally ended in July 2011, with an agreement signed between the central government, the CPLA and the Cordillera Bodong Administration (CBA) that allowed for the absorption of CPLA fighters into the Philippine Army and the re-working of the CBA-CPLA into a socio-development organisation.

Philippines-RPM-P

Meanwhile, purge among the CPP in the early 1990s, encouraged the formation of a parallel party, the Revolutionary Workers Party (RPM-P). Their armed wing, the Alex Boncayao Brigade (ABB) which had carried out a number of assassinations during the 1980s at the bequest of the CPP, followed suit and allied themselves with the RPM-P in 1997 forming the (RPM-P-RPA-ABB). Severely weakened by the split with the CPP and with the arrest of several key figures, the RPM-P-RPA-ABB signed a peace agreement in December 2000, which encouraged the RPM-P’s branch in Mindanao to break away in 2001.

The CPP-NPA has only participated in intermittent talks with the government. Talks halted in 2004 when Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s administration sought closer ties with the U.S. in the war on terror and added the CPP-NPA to the list of terrorist organisations, renewing violence. Following the launch of a counter-insurgency by the Philippine government, negotiations have been further delayed due to suspected internal differences between the CPP ‘old guard’ and younger members.

The Moro Insurgency (1968 - )

Philippines-Mindanao

The Moro Insurgency began in 1968, in Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago after the killing of Moro Commandos, the so-called Jabidah Massacre, by the Philippine Army following a plot to invade Sabah province in Malaysia. The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) captured a swath of territory in the mid-1970s. In an attempt to stem the violence, the constitution was reformed and Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) was created 1990 granting a devolution of power to the provinces of Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. Following the establishment of the ARMM, the MNLF splintered into a range of smaller groups including Islamic factions such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Abu Sayef Goup (ASG). The Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed in 2014.
Philippine Insurgencies (1968 - ) )
Stage
Implementation/renegotiation (Implementation modalities)
Conflict nature
Government/territory
Peace process
97: Philippines - Mindanao process
Parties
H.E. Ambassador Manuel T. Yan, GRP Panel Chairman;
H.E. Professor Nur Misuari, MNLF Panel Chairman
Third parties
Participatory signatures: H.E. Mr.Ali Alatas, Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia/Chairman of the OIC Ministerial Committee of the Six;
H.E. Dr. Hamid Al-Gabid, Secretary-General of the OIC
Description
Framework Agreement setting out autonomy arrangements for Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), integration of MNLF into army and police, and phased implementation of the agreement. Phase I consists of a three year transitional period, and Phase II involves an amendment to or a repeal of the Organic Act (RA 6734) of the ARMM and a plebiscite in the concerning areas to determine the government and area of the ARMM.

Agreement document
PH_960902_Final Agreement Implementing Tripoli Areement.pdf

Main category
Page 12, III. The New Regional Autonomous Government (Phase II)
A. Executive Council, Legislative Assembly, Administrative System and Representation in the National Government Executive Council
25. There shall be sectoral representatives in the Legislative Assembly whose number shall not exceed fifteen percent (15%) of the total number of elected Members of the Legislative Assembly coming from the labor, disabled, industrial, indigenous cultural communities, youth, women, non-government organizations, agricultural, and such other sectors as may be provided by Regional Law to be appointed by the Head of the Autonomous Government from among the nominees of the different sectoral groups; provided, however, that the youth representative shall not be less than 18 years of age nor more than 21 years of age at the time of his appointment.

Page 15, III. The New Regional Autonomous Government (Phase II)
A. Executive Council, Legislative Assembly, Administrative System and Representation in the National Government Executive Council:
34. No person shall be elected member of the Legislative Assembly unless he/she is:
a. A natural-born citizen of the Philippines;
b. At least 21 years of age on the day of elections;
c. Able to read and write;
d. A registered voter of the district in which he/she shall be elected on the day he/she files his/ her certificate of candidacy; and
e. A resident thereof for a period of no less than five years immediately preceding the day of election.

Page 15, III. The New Regional Autonomous Government (Phase II)
A. Executive Council, Legislative Assembly, Administrative System and Representation in the National Government Executive Council:
35. Every member of the Legislative Assembly shall take an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines before taking his/her seat.

Page 30, III. The New Regional Autonomous Government (Phase II)
D. 130. The Regional Autonomous Government in the area of autonomy advocates equal opportunities for all the inhabitants of the area of autonomy regardless of ethnic origin, culture, sex, creed and religion.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
Gender quotas
Page 12, III. The New Regional Autonomous Government (Phase II)
A. Executive Council, Legislative Assembly, Administrative System and Representation in the National Government Executive Council
25. There shall be sectoral representatives in the Legislative Assembly whose number shall not exceed fifteen percent (15%) of the total number of elected Members of the Legislative Assembly coming from the labor, disabled, industrial, indigenous cultural communities, youth, women, non-government organizations, agricultural, and such other sectors as may be provided by Regional Law to be appointed by the Head of the Autonomous Government from among the nominees of the different sectoral groups; provided, however, that the youth representative shall not be less than 18 years of age nor more than 21 years of age at the time of his appointment.
Equality
Equality (general)
Page 30, III. The New Regional Autonomous Government (Phase II)
D. 130. The Regional Autonomous Government in the area of autonomy advocates equal opportunities for all the inhabitants of the area of autonomy regardless of ethnic origin, culture, sex, creed and religion.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh