Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Integration of the Armed Forces of the Two Parties

Country/entity
Rwanda
Region
Africa (excl MENA)
Agreement name
Protocol of Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front on the Integration of the Armed Forces of the Two Parties
Date
03/08/1993
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Intrastate/intrastate conflict (Rwandan Civil War (1990 - 1994)
The origins between the ethnic tensions between the Tutsi and Hutus in Rwanda are found in the original waves of migration and later into the domination of the Kingdom of Rwanda formed by the Tutsi clans. The Kingdom of Rwanda became the framework used by the German colonials to exercise power. Although the economy was reformed following the transfer to Belgian rule after World War I, the Hutu majority remained disenfranchised. Socio-economic differences were further cemented in 1935, when the Belgians introduced identity cards with Hutu or Tutsi distinctions.

Relations deteriorated after World War Two when a Hutu elite formed, and in 1959, what began as attacks on Tutsi targets evolved into the Rwandan revolution. The Belgian colonials began a programme of promotion for Hutus and following elections in the mid-1960s, the Hutus took control of most constituencies. More than 336,000 Tutsis fled Rwanda during the revolution and a failed insurgency was launched in the late 1960s.

By the late 1980s, many former Tutsi refugees in Uganda had gained integral roles in the Ugandan National Army following the overthrow of Milton Obete by Yoweri Museveni. In 1990, a Tutsi faction within the Ugandan Army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, led by Fred Rwigyema invaded Uganda. However, the RPF came in disarray following Rwigyema’s death on the second day of the attack. This led another Tutsi officer from the Ugandan Army, Paul Kagama, to step in. The troops were reassembled and another campaign was lauched in 1991. By 1992, the Arusha Accords were signed in Tanzania, providing for a power-sharing government. The war took a turn for the worst when on April 6, 1994, the plane of then-President Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu, was shot over Kigali killing everyone on board. The next day, the Rwandan Army, alongside civilians began killing Tutsi and moderate Hutu leaders, which marked the beginning of the 3-month long genocide of Tutsis in Rwanda, until the killing was ended in July 1994 when the RNF forced the interim government into exile. Approximately 2,000,000 Hutus also fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda.

Rwandan Civil War (1990 - 1994) )
Stage
Framework/substantive - partial (Core issue)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
53: Rwanda-RPF process
Parties
- For the Government of the Republic of Rwanda, Dr. GASANA Anastase, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
- For Rwandese Patriotic Front, BIZIMUNGU Pasteur, Member of the Executive Committee and Commissioner for Information and Documentation
Third parties
In the presence of the Representative of the Facilitator (the United Republic of Tanzania), Joseph RWEGASIRA, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
In the Presence of the Representative of the Secretary General of OAU, Dr. M. T. MAPURANGA Assistant Secretary General in charge of Political Affairs.
Description
The protocol calls for the formation of a new national army through the integration of the two opposing forces, providing for the National Army (I), the National Gendermarie (II), Demobilization Process (III).

The protocol defines the mission's size and the structure of the Armed force, and sets the procedures for the integration of the two forces into various security organs. It also calls for a Neutral International Force to support the transitional process.

Agreement document
RW_930803_ProtocolonIntegrationArmedForces.pdf

Main category
Page 2, Chapter I: The National Army, Section I: Missions and Principles, Article 1:
...
B. Principles.
...
4. The National Army shall be a regular Army, composed solely of volunteer Rwandese citizens recruited on the basis of their competence. It shall be open to any Rwandese Nationals, irrespective of their ethnic group, region, sex, religion or language;

Page 38, Chapter I: the National Army, Section 4: Formation of the National Army, Sub-Section 1: Process of the Formation of the National Army, Paragraph 3: Disengagement of Forces, Article 62. The Personal Identification File.
A personal identification file shall be opened for each serviceman as soon as they report to the Assembly point. The file shall include the following particulars:
Family name and First name; Rank; Years of Service within the Rank; Regimental Number; Sex; Date of Birth; Marital Status; Being a Rwandese national; Type and Serial Number of Weapon; Specialization; Military or Civilian Diploma, Certificate or Brevet, Blood Group.

Page 52, Chapter II: The National Gendarmerie, Section 1: Definition, Missions and Principles, Article 84:
Principles
...
6. Members of the National Gendarmerie shall solely be recruited among Rwandese volunteer citizens, on the basis of their competence. The National Gendarmerie shall be open to any Rwandese nationals, irrespective of their ethnic group, region, sex and religion.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
No specific mention.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
Police
Page 52, Chapter II: The National Gendarmerie, Section 1: Definition, Missions and Principles, Article 84:
Principles
... 6. Members of the National Gendarmerie shall solely be recruited among Rwandese volunteer citizens, on the basis of their competence. The National Gendarmerie shall be open to any Rwandese nationals, irrespective of their ethnic group, region, sex and religion.
DDR, army, parastatal or rebel forces
Page 2, Chapter I: The National Army, Section I: Missions and Principles, Article 1:
... B. Principles.
... 4. The National Army shall be a regular Army, composed solely of volunteer Rwandese citizens recruited on the basis of their competence. It shall be open to any Rwandese Nationals, irrespective of their ethnic group, region, sex, religion or language;

Page 38, Chapter I: the National Army, Section 4: Formation of the National Army, Sub-Section 1: Process of the Formation of the National Army, Paragraph 3: Disengagement of Forces, Article 62. The Personal Identification File.
A personal identification file shall be opened for each serviceman as soon as they report to the Assembly point. The file shall include the following particulars:
Family name and First name; Rank; Years of Service within the Rank; Regimental Number; Sex; Date of Birth; Marital Status; Being a Rwandese national; Type and Serial Number of Weapon; Specialization; Military or Civilian Diploma, Certificate or Brevet, Blood Group.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh