Tashkent Declaration on Fundamental Principles for a Peaceful Settlement of the Conflict in Afghanistan

Country/entity
Afghanistan
Region
Europe and Eurasia
Agreement name
Tashkent Declaration on Fundamental Principles for a Peaceful Settlement of the Conflict in Afghanistan
Date
19/07/1999
Agreement status
Multiparty signed/agreed
Agreement/conflict level
Interstate/intrastate conflict(s) (Afghan Wars (1979 - )
The agreements are drawn from two distinct conflict periods. Post Soviet-intervention period. First, after an uprising against the communist government, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979 and set up a puppet government. Fierce resistance came in on the form of domestic and foreign Mujahidin fighters who, by 1988, forced the Soviet Union to withdraw. The Communist government that remained was defeated in 1992 against a background of violence, which spiralled into a tumultuous multi-party civil war with a strong tribal basis. In 1993 a peace accord was signed, but by 1994 the conflict realigned itself as the Islamic-based Taliban emerged from the refugee camps, eventually occupying the capital city of Kabul in September 1996 spurring groups that had militantly opposed the communist government to unite in opposition to the Taliban.

Post US-intervention period. After the terror attacks on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan and removed the Taliban from power. In December 2001, the UNSC mandated the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist Afghanistan’s interim authorities. In 2003 ISAF command was placed under NATO’s responsibility. Within three years, however, the Taliban managed to re-group and re-structure and launched intense resistance to the internationally-recognized Afghanistan government and NATO support troops. Despite this resurgence of the Taliban, NATO leaders lacked the necessary support for the mission abroad, and NATO troops were withdrawn by the end of 2014.
Afghan Wars (1979 - ) )
Stage
Pre-negotiation/process (Process)
Conflict nature
Government
Peace process
2: Afghanistan: 2000s Post-intervention process
Parties
Not signed, agreement mentions the following parties as having produced it: The Deputy Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the «Six plus Two» group, composed of the States bordering on Afghanistan - the People's Republic of China, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan - as well as the Russian Federation and the United States of America.

These are believed to have been; Ji Peiding, China; Javad Zarif, Iran; Iftihar Murshid, Pakistan; Gulomzhon Mirzoyev, Tajikistan; Rashid Meredov, Turkmenistan; Abdusamat Khaydarov, Uzbekistan; Karl Inderfurth, U.S.A; and Vasily Sredin, Russian Federation.
Third parties
The agreement refers to the participation of the Special Envoy of the United Nations Secretary-General for Afghanistan, Mr. Lakhdar Brahimi.
Description
This short declaration commits the parties to refrain from providing military support to any group in Afghanistan. It outlines a negotiation process, and refers to issues including the trade of narcotics, humanitarian assistance, and the formation of a multi-ethnic government.

Agreement document
AF_990719_TashkentDeclaration.pdf

Main category
Page 2
...
We express our profound concern at the violations of the human rights, including those of ethnic minorities and women and girls, as well as the violations of international humanitarian law that are taking place in Afghanistan.

Women, girls and gender

Participation
No specific mention.
Equality
No specific mention.
Particular groups of women
No specific mention.
International law
General IHRL, IHL and IL
Page 2, Annex
...
We express our profound concern at the violations of the human rights, including those of ethnic minorities and women and girls, as well as the violations of international humanitarian law that are taking place in Afghanistan.
New institutions
No specific mention.
Violence against women
No specific mention.
Transitional justice
No specific mention.
Institutional reform
No specific mention.
Development
No specific mention.
Implementation
No specific mention.
Other
No specific mention.

The University of Edinburgh